Philippians iv. 4-7.-"Rejoice in the Lord alway: again I will say,
Rejoice. Let your forbearance be known unto all men. The Lord is at hand.
In nothing be anxious; but in everything by prayer and supplication with
thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God. And the peace of
God, which passeth all understanding, shall guard your hearts and your
thoughts through Christ Jesus."
"Blessed they that mourn," and "woe unto them that laugh" (Matt. v.
4; Luke vi. 25), saith Christ. How then saith Paul, "Rejoice in the Lord
alway"? "Woe to them that laugh," said Christ, the laughter of this world
which ariseth from the things which are present He blessed also those that
mourn, not simply for the loss of relatives, but those who are pricked
at heart, who mourn their own faults, and take count of their own sins,
or even those of others. This joy is not contrary to that grief, but from
that grief it too is born. For he who grieveth for his own faults, and
confesseth them, rejoiceth. Moreover, it is possible to grieve for our
own sins, and yet to rejoice in Christ. Since then they were afflicted
by their sufferings, "for to you it is given not only to believe in him,
but also to suffer for him" (Phil. i. 29), therefore he saith, "Rejoice
in the Lord." For this can but mean, If you exhibit such a life that you
may rejoice. Or when your communion with God is not hindered, rejoice.
Or else the word "in" may stand for "with": as if he had said, with the
Lord. "Alway; again I will say, Rejoice." These are the words of one who
brings comfort; as, for example, he who is in God rejoiceth alway. Yea
though he be afflicted, yea whatever he may suffer, such a man alway rejoiceth.
Hear what Luke saith, that "they returned from the presence of the Council,
rejoicing that they were counted worthy to be scourged for His name." (Acts
v. 41.) If scourging and bonds, which seem to be the most grievous of all
things, bring forth joy, what else will be able to produce grief in us?
"Again I will say, Rejoice." Well hath he repeated. For since
the nature of the things brought forth grief, he shows by repeating, that
they should by all means rejoice.
"Let your forbearance be known unto all men." He said above, "Whose
god is the belly, and whose glory is in their shame," and that they "mind
earthly things." (Phil. iii. 19.) It was probable that they would be at
enmity with the wicked; he therefore exhorted them to have nothing in common
with them, but to use them with all forbearance, and that not only their
brethren, but also their enemies and opposers. "The Lord is at hand, in
nothing be anxious." For why, tell me? do they ever rise in opposition?
And if ye see them living in luxury, why are ye in affliction? Already
the judgment is nigh; shortly will they give account of their actions.
Are ye in affliction, and they in luxury? But these things shall shortly
receive their end. Do they plot against you, and threaten you? "In nothing
be anxious." The judgment is already at hand, when these things shall be
reversed. "In nothing be anxious." If ye are kindly affected toward those
who prepare evil against you, yet it shall not at last turn out to their
profit. Already the recompense is at hand, if poverty, if death, if aught
else that is terrible be upon you. "But in everything, by prayer and supplication,
with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known unto God." There is
this for one consolation, "the Lord is at hand." And again, "I will be
with you alway, even unto the end of the world." (Matt. xxviii. 20.) Behold
another consolation, a medicine which healeth grief, and distress, and
all that is painful. And what is this? Prayer, thanksgiving in all things.
And so He wills that our prayers should not simply be requests, but thanksgivings
too for what we have. For how should he ask for future things, who is not
thankful for the past? "But in everything by prayer and supplication."
Wherefore we ought to give thanks for all things, even for those which
seem to be grievous, for this is the part of the truly thankful man. In
the other case the nature of the things demands it; but this springs from
a grateful soul, and one earnestly affected toward God. God acknowledgeth
these prayers, but others He knoweth not. Offer up such prayers as may
be acknowledged; for He disposeth all things for our profit, though we
know it not. And this is a proof that it greatly profiteth, namely, that
we know it not. "And the peace of God which passeth all understanding shall
guard your hearts and your thoughts in Christ Jesus." What meaneth this?
"The peace of God" which He hath wrought toward men, surpasseth all understanding.
For who could have expected, who could have hoped, that such good things
would have come? They exceed all man's understanding, not his speech alone.
For His enemies, for those who hated Him, for those who determined to turn
themselves away, for these, he refused not to deliver up His Only Begotten
Son, that He might make peace with us. This peace then, i.e. the reconciliation,
the love of God, shall guard your hearts and your thoughts.
For this is the part of a teacher, not only to exhort, but also to pray,
and to assist by supplication, that they may neither be overwhelmed by
temptations, nor carried about by deceit. As if he had said, May He who
hath delivered you in such sort as mind cannot comprehend, may He Himself
guard yon, and secure you, so that you suffer no ill. Either he means this,
or that that peace of which Christ saith, "Peace I leave with you, My peace
I give unto you" (John xiv. 27): this shall guard you, for this peace exceedeth
all man's understanding. How? When he tells us to be at peace with our
enemies, with those who treat us unjustly, with those who are at war and
enmity toward us; is it not beyond man's understanding? But rather let
us look to the former. If the peace surpasseth all understanding, much
more doth God Himself, who giveth peace, pass all understanding, not ours
only, but also that of Angels, and the Powers above. What meaneth "in Christ
Jesus"? Shall guard us in Him, so that ye may remain firm, and not fall
from His faith.
Ver. 8. "Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are honorable, whatsoever
things are true, whatsoever things are just." What is "Finally "? It
stands for, "I have said all." It is not the word of one that is in haste,
and has everything to do with present things."Finally, brethren, whatsoever
things are honorable, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are
just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever
things are of good report, if there be any virtue, and if there be any
praise, think on these things."
Ver. 9. "The things which ye both learned and received, and heard
and saw in me."
What meaneth, "whatsoever things are lovely "? Lovely to the faithful,
lovely to God. "Whatsoever things are true." Virtue is really true, vice
is falsehood. For the pleasure of it is a falsehood, and its glory is falsehood,
and all things of the world are falsehood. "Whatsoever things are pure."
This is opposed to the words "who mind earthly things." "Whatsoever things
are honorable." This is opposed to the words "whose god is their belly."
"Whatsoever things are just," i.e. saith he, "whatsoever things are of
good report." "If there be any virtue, if there be any praise." Here he
willeth them to take thought of those things too which regard men. "Think
on these things," saith he. Seest thou, that he desires to banish every
evil thought from our souls; for evil actions spring from thoughts. "The
things which ye both learned and received." This is teaching, in all his
exhortations to propose himself for a model: as he saith in another place,
"even as ye have us for an ensample." (Phil. iii. 17.) And again here,
"What things ye learned and received," i.e. have been taught by word of
mouth, "and heard and saw in me": both in respect of my words and actions
and conduct. Seest thou, how about everything he lays these commands on
us? For since it was not possible to make an accurate enumeration of all
things, of our coming in, and going out, and speech, and carriage, and
intercourse (for of all these things it is needful that a Christian should
have thought), he said shortly, and as it were in a summary, "ye heard
and saw in me." I have led yon forward both by deeds and by words. "These
things do," not only in words, but do them also. "And the God of peace
shall be with you," i.e. ye shall be in a calm, in great safety, ye shall
suffer nothing painful, nor contrary to your will. For when we are at peace
with Him, and we are so through virtue, much more will He be at peace with
us. For He who so loved us, as to show favor to us even against our will,
will He not, if He sees us hastening toward Him, Himself yet much more
exhibit His love toward us?
Nothing is such an enemy of our nature as vice. And from many things
it is evident, how vice is at enmity with us, and virtue friendly toward
us. What will ye? That I should speak of fornication? It makes men subject
to reproach, poor, objects of ridicule, despicable to all, just as enemies
treat them. Ofttimes it hath involved men in disease and danger; many men
have perished or been wounded in behalf of their mistresses. And if fornication
produces these things, much rather doth adultery. But doth almsgiving so?
By no means. But as a loving mother setteth her son in great propriety,
in good order, in good report, and gives him leisure to engage in necessary
work, thus alms-giving doth not release us nor lead us away from our necessary
work, but even renders the soul more wise. For nothing is more foolish
than a mistress.
But what willest thou? To look upon covetousness? It too treats us like
an enemy. And how? It makes us hated by all. It prepareth all men to vaunt
themselves against us; both those who have been treated unjustly by us,
and those who have not, who share the grief of the former, and are in fear
for themselves. All men look upon us as their common foes, as wild beasts,
as demons. Everywhere are there innumerable accusations, plots against
us, envyings, all which are the acts of enemies. But justice, on the contrary,
makes all men friends, all men sociable, all men well disposed towards
us, by all men prayers are made in our behalf; our affairs are in perfect
safety, there is no danger, there is no suspicion. But sleep also fearlessly
comes over us with perfect safety, no care is there, no lamenting.
How much better this sort of life is! And what? Is it best to envy,
or to rejoice with one another? Let us search out all these things, and
we shall find that virtue, like a truly kind mother, places us in safety,
while vice is a treacherous thing, and full of danger. For hear the prophet,
who saith, "The Lord is a stronghold of them that fear Him, and His covenant
is to show them." (Ps. xxv. 14, Sept.) He feareth no one, who is not conscious
to himself of any wickedness; on the contrary, he who liveth in crime is
never confident, but trembles at his domestics, and looks at them with
suspicion. Why say, his domestics? He cannot bear the tribunal of his own
conscience. Not only those who are without, but his inward thoughts affect
him likewise, and suffer him not to be in quiet. What then, saith Paul?
Ought we to live dependent on praise? He said not, look to praise, but
do praiseworthy actions, yet not for the sake of praise.
"Whatsoever things are true," for the things we have been speaking of
are false. "Whatsoever things are honorable." That which is "honorable"
belongs to external virtue, that which is "pure" to the soul. Give no cause
of stumbling, saith he, nor handle of accusation. Because he had said,
"Whatsoever things are of good report," lest you should think that he means
only those things which are so in the sight of men, he proceeds, "if there
be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things"-do these
things. He wills us ever to be in these things, to care for these things,
to think on these things. For if we will be at peace with each other, God
too will be with us, but if we raise up war, the God of peace will not
be with us. For nothing is so hostile to the soul as vice. That is, peace
and virtue place it in safety. Wherefore we must make a beginning on our
part, and then we shall draw God toward us.
God is not a God of war and fighting. Make war and fighting to cease,
both that which is against Him, and that which is against thy neighbor.
Be at peace with all men, consider with what character God saveth thee.
"Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God." (Matt.
v. 9.) Such always imitate the Son of God: do thou imitate Him too. Be
at peace. The more thy brother warreth against thee, by so much the greater
will be thy reward. For hear the prophet who saith, "With the haters of
peace I was peaceful." (Ps. cxx. 7, Sept.) This is virtue, this is above
man's understanding, this maketh us near God; nothing so much delighteth
God as to remember no evil. This sets thee free from thy sins, this looseth
the charges against thee: but if we are fighting and buffeting, we become
far off from God: for enmities are produced by conflict, and from enmity
springs remembrance of evil.
Cut out the root, and there will be no fruit. Thus shall we learn to
despise the things of this life, for there is no conflict, none, in spiritual
things, but whatever thou seest, either conflicts or envy, or whatever
a man can mention, all these spring from the things of this life. Every
conflict hath its beginning either in covetousness, or envy, or vainglory.
If therefore we are at peace, we shall learn to despise the things of the
earth. Hath a man stolen our money? He hath not injured us, only let him
not steal our treasure which is above. Hath he hindered thy glory? Yet
not that which is from God, but that which is of no account. For this is
no glory, but a mere name of glory, or rather a shame. Hath he stolen thy
honor? Rather not thine but his own. For as he who committeth injustice
doth not so much inflict as receive injustice, thus too he who plots against
his neighbor, first destroyeth himself.
For "he who diggeth a pit for his neighbor, falleth into it." (Prov.
xxvi. 27.) Let us then not plot against others, lest we injure ourselves.
When we supplant the reputation of others, let us consider that we injure
ourselves, it is against ourselves we plot. For perchance with men we do
him harm, if we have power, but we injure ourselves in the sight of God,
by provoking Him against us. Let us not then harm ourselves. For as we
injure ourselves when we injure our neighbors, so by benefiting them we
benefit ourselves. If then thy enemy harm thee, he hath benefited thee
if thou art wise, and so requite him not with the same things, but even
do him good. But the blow, you say, remains severe. Consider then that
thou dost not benefit, but punishest him, and benefitest thyself, and quickly
you will come to do him good. What then? Shall we act from this motive?
We ought not to act on this motive, but if thy heart will not hear other
reason, induce it, saith he, even by this, and thou wilt quickly persuade
it to dismiss its enmity, and wilt for the future do good to thine enemy
as to a friend, and wilt obtain the good things which are to come, to which
God grant that we may all attain in Christ Jesus. Amen.