"there is one Who makes the joy the last in every song."
The assertion in the old legendary description of his person and habits,
that he was never known to smile, I regard as an utter falsehood, for to
me it is incredible-almost as a geometrical absurdity. In that glad company
the eyes of a divine artist, following the spiritual lines of the group,
would have soon settled on his face as the centre whence radiated all the
gladness, where, as I seem to see him, he sat in the background beside
his mother. Even the sunny face of the bridegroom would appear less full
of light than his. But something is at hand which will change his mood.
For no true man had he been if his mood had never changed. His high, holy,
obedient will, his tender, pure, strong heart never changed, but his mood,
his feeling did change. For the mood must often, and in many cases ought
to be the human reflex of changing circumstance. The change comes from
his mother. She whispers to him that they have no more wine. The bridegroom's
liberality had reached the limit of his means, for, like his guests, he
was, most probably, of a humble calling, a craftsman, say, or a fisherman.
It must have been a painful little trial to him if he knew the fact; but
I doubt if he heard of the want before it was supplied.
There was nothing in this however to cause the change in our Lord's
mood of which I have spoken. It was no serious catastrophe, at least to
him, that the wine should fail. His mother had but told him the fact; only
there is more than words in every commonest speech that passes. It was
not his mother's words, but the tone and the look with which they were
interwoven that wrought the change. She knew that her son was no common
man, and she believed in him, with an unripe, unfeatured faith. This faith,
working with her ignorance and her fancy, led her to expect the great things
of the world from him. This was a faith which must fail that it might grow.
Imperfection must fail that strength may come in its place. It is well
for the weak that their faith should fail them, for it may at the moment
be resting its wings upon the twig of some brittle fancy, instead of on
a branch of the tree of life.
But, again, what was it in his mother's look and tone that should work
the change in our Lord's mood? The request implied in her words could give
him no offence, for he granted that request; and he never would have done
a thing he did not approve, should his very mother ask him. The thoughts
of the mother lay not in her words, but in the expression that accompanied
them, and it was to those thoughts that our Lord replied. Hence his answer,
which has little to do with her spoken request, is the key both to her
thoughts and to his. If we do not understand his reply, we may misunderstand
the miracle-certainly we are in danger of grievously misunderstanding him-a
far worse evil. How many children are troubled in heart that Jesus should
have spoken to his mother as our translation compels them to suppose he
did speak! "Woman, what have I to do with thee? Mine hour is not yet come."
His hour for working the miracle had come, for he wrought it; and if he
had to do with one human soul at all, that soul must be his mother. The
"woman," too, sounds strange in our ears. This last, however, is our fault:
we allow words to sink from their high rank, and then put them to degraded
uses. What word so full of grace and tender imagings to any true man as
that one word! The Saviour did use it to his mother; and when he called
her woman, the good custom of the country and the time was glorified in
the word as it came from his lips fulfilled of humanity; for those lips
were the open gates of a heart full of infinite meanings. Hence whatever
word he used had more of the human in it than that word had ever held before.
What he did say was this-"Woman, what is there common to thee and me?
My hour is not yet come." What! was not their humanity common to them?
Had she not been fit, therefore chosen, to bear him? Was she not his mother?
But his words had no reference to the relation between them; they only
referred to the present condition of her mind, or rather the nature of
the thought and expectation which now occupied it. Her hope and his intent
were at variance; there was no harmony between his thought and hers; and
it was to that thought and that hope of hers that his words were now addressed.
To paraphrase the words-and if I do so with reverence and for the sake
of the spirit which is higher than the word, I think I am allowed to do
so-"Woman, what is there in your thoughts now that is in sympathy with
mine? Also the hour that you are expecting is not come yet."
What, then, was in our Lord's thoughts? and what was in his mother's
thoughts to call forth his words? She was thinking the time had come for
making a show of his power-for revealing what a great man he was-for beginning
to let that glory shine, which was, in her notion, to culminate in the
grandeur of a righteous monarch-a second Solomon, forsooth, who should
set down the mighty in the dust, and exalt them of low degree. Here was
the opportunity for working like a prophet of old, and revealing of what
a mighty son she was the favoured mother.
And of what did the glow of her face, the light in her eyes, and the
tone with which she uttered the words, "They have no wine," make Jesus
think? Perhaps of the decease which he must accomplish at Jerusalem; perhaps
of a throne of glory betwixt the two thieves; certainly of a kingdom of
heaven not such as filled her imagination, even although her heaven-descended
Son was the king thereof. A kingdom of exulting obedience, not of acquiescence,
still less of compulsion, lay germed in his bosom, and he must be laid
in the grave ere that germ could send up its first green lobes into the
air of the human world. No throne, therefore, of earthly grandeur for him!
no triumph for his blessed mother such as she dreamed! There was nothing
common in their visioned ends. Hence came the change of mood to Jesus,
and hence the words that sound at first so strange, seeming to have so
little to do with the words of his mother.
But no change of mood could change a feeling towards mother or friends.
The former, although she could ill understand what he meant, never fancied
in his words any unkindness to her. She, too, had the face of the speaker
to read; and from that face came such answer to her prayer for her friends,
that she awaited no confirming words, but in the confidence of a mother
who knew her child, said at once to the servants, "Whatsoever he saith
unto you, do it."
If any one object that I have here imagined too much, I would remark,
first, that the records in the Gospel are very brief and condensed; second,
that the germs of a true intelligence must lie in this small seed, and
our hearts are the soil in which it must unfold itself; third, that we
are bound to understand the story, and that the foregoing are the suppositions
on which I am able to understand it in a manner worthy of what I have learned
concerning Him. I am bound to refuse every interpretation that seems to
me unworthy of Him, for to accept such would be to sin against the Holy
Ghost. If I am wrong in my idea either of that which I receive or of that
which I reject, as soon as the fact is revealed to me I must cast the one
away and do justice to the other. Meantime this interpretation seems to
me to account for our Lord's words in a manner he will not be displeased
with even if it fail to reach the mark of the fact. That St John saw, and
might expect such an interpretation to be found in the story, barely as
he has told it, will be rendered the more probable if we remember his own
similar condition and experience when he and his brother James prayed the
Lord for the highest rank in his kingdom, and received an answer which
evidently flowed from the same feeling to which I have attributed that
given on this occasion to his mother.
" 'Fill the water-pots with water.' And they filled them up to the brim.
'Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast.' And they bare
it. 'Thou hast kept the good wine until now.' " It is such a thing of course
that, when our Lord gave them wine, it would be of the best, that it seems
almost absurd to remark upon it. What the Father would make and will make,
and that towards which he is ever working, is the Best; and when our Lord
turns the water into wine it must be very good.
It is like his Father, too, not to withhold good wine because men abuse
it. Enforced virtue is unworthy of the name. That men may rise above temptation,
it is needful that they should have temptation. It is the will of him who
makes the grapes and the wine. Men will even call Jesus himself a wine-bibber.
What matters it, so long as he works as the Father works, and lives as
the Father wills?
I dare not here be misunderstood. God chooses that men should be tried,
but let a man beware of tempting his neighbour. God knows how and how much,
and where and when: man is his brother's keeper, and must keep him according
to his knowledge. A man may work the will of God for others, and be condemned
therein because he sought his own will and not God's. That our Lord gave
this company wine, does not prove that he would have given any company
wine. To some he refused even the bread they requested at his hands. Because
he gave wine to the wedding-guests, shall man dig a pit at the corner of
every street, that the poor may fall therein, spending their money for
that which is not bread, and their labour for that which satisfieth not?
Let the poor man be tempted as God wills, for the end of God is victory;
let not man tempt him, for his end is his neighbour's fall, or at best
he heeds it not for the sake of gain, and he shall receive according to
To him who can thank God with free heart for his good wine, there is
a glad significance in the fact that our Lord's first miracle was this
turning of water into wine. It is a true symbol of what he has done for
the world in glorifying all things. With his divine alchemy he turns not
only water into wine, but common things into radiant mysteries, yea, every
meal into a eucharist, and the jaws of the sepulchre into an outgoing gate.
I do not mean that he makes any change in the things or ways of God, but
a mighty change in the hearts and eyes of men, so that God's facts and
God's meanings become their faiths and their hopes. The destroying spirit,
who works in the commonplace, is ever covering the deep and clouding the
high. For those who listen to that spirit great things cannot be. Such
are there, but they cannot see them, for in themselves they do not aspire.
They believe, perhaps, in the truth and grace of their first child: when
they have spoiled him, they laugh at the praises of childhood. From all
that is thus low and wretched, incapable and fearful, he who made the water
into wine delivers men, revealing heaven around them, God in all things,
truth in every instinct, evil withering and hope springing even in the
path of the destroyer.
That the wine should be his first miracle, and that the feeding of the
multitudes should be the only other creative miracle, will also suggest
many thoughts in connection with the symbol he has left us of his relation
to his brethren. In the wine and the bread of the eucharist, he reminds
us how utterly he has given, is giving, himself for the gladness and the
strength of his Father's children. Yea more; for in that he is the radiation
of the Father's glory, this bread and wine is the symbol of how utterly
the Father gives himself to his children, how earnestly he would have them
partakers of his own being. If Jesus was the son of the Father, is it hard
to believe that he should give men bread and wine?
It was not his power, however, but his glory, that Jesus showed forth
in the miracle. His power could not be hidden, but it was a poor thing
beside his glory. Yea, power in itself is a poor thing. If it could stand
alone, which it cannot, it would be a horror. No amount of lonely power
could create. It is the love that is at the root of power, the power of
power, which alone can create. What then was this his glory? What was it
that made him glorious? It was that, like his Father, he ministered to
the wants of men. Had they not needed the wine, not for the sake of whatever
show of his power would he have made it. The concurrence of man's need
and his love made it possible for that glory to shine forth. It is for
this glory most that we worship him. But power is no object of adoration,
and they who try to worship it are slaves. Their worship is no real worship.
Those who trembled at the thunder from the mountain went and worshipped
a golden calf; but Moses went into the thick darkness to find his God.
How far the expectation of the mother Mary that her son would, by majesty
of might, appeal to the wedding guests, and arouse their enthusiasm for
himself, was from our Lord's thoughts, may be well seen in the fact that
the miracle was not beheld even by the ruler of the feast; while the report
of it would probably receive little credit from at least many of those
who partook of the good wine. So quietly was it done, so entirely without
pre-intimation of his intent, so stolenly, as it were, in the two simple
ordered acts, the filling of the water-pots with water, and the drawing
of it out again, as to make it manifest that it was done for the ministration.
He did not do it even for the show of his goodness, but to be good. This
alone could show his Father's goodness. It was done because here was an
opportunity in which all circumstances combined with the bodily presence
of the powerful and the prayer of his mother, to render it fit that the
love of his heart should go forth in giving his merry-making brothers and
sisters more and better wine to drink.
And herein we find another point in which this miracle of Jesus resembles
the working of his Father. For God ministers to us so gently, so stolenly,
as it were, with such a quiet, tender, loving absence of display, that
men often drink of his wine, as these wedding guests drank, without knowing
whence it comes-without thinking that the giver is beside them, yea, in
their very hearts. For God will not compel the adoration of men: it would
be but a pagan worship that would bring to his altars. He will rouse in
men a sense of need, which shall grow at length into a longing; he will
make them feel after him, until by their search becoming able to behold
him, he may at length reveal to them the glory of their Father. He works
silently-keeps quiet behind his works, as it were, that he may truly reveal
himself in the right time. With this intent also, when men find his wine
good and yet do not rise and search for the giver, he will plague them
with sore plagues, that the good wine of life may not be to them, and therefore
to him and the universe, an evil thing. It would seem that the correlative
of creation is search; that as God has made us, we must find him; that
thus our action must reflect his; that thus he glorifies us with a share
in the end of all things, which is that the Father and his children may
be one in thought, judgment, feeling, and intent, in a word, that they
may mean the same thing. St John says that Jesus thus "manifested forth
his glory, and his disciples believed on him." I doubt if any but his disciples
knew of the miracle; or of those others who might see or hear of it, if
any believed on him because of it. It is possible to see a miracle, and
not believe in it; while many of those who saw a miracle of our Lord believed
in the miracle, and yet did not believe in him.
I wonder how many Christians there are who so thoroughly believe God
made them that they can laugh in God's name; who understand that God invented
laughter and gave it to his children. Such belief would add a keenness
to the zest in their enjoyment, and slay that sneering laughter of which
a man grimaces to the fiends, as well as that feeble laughter in which
neither heart nor intellect has a share. It would help them also to understand
the depth of this miracle. The Lord of gladness delights in the laughter
of a merry heart. These wedding guests could have done without wine, surely
without more wine and better wine. But the Father looks with no esteem
upon a bare existence, and is ever working, even by suffering, to render
life more rich and plentiful. His gifts are to the overflowing of the cup;
but when the cup would overflow, he deepens its hollow, and widens its
brim. Our Lord is profuse like his Father, yea, will, at his own sternest
cost, be lavish to his brethren. He will give them wine indeed.
But even they who know whence the good wine comes, and joyously thank
the giver, shall one day cry out, like the praiseful ruler of the feast
to him who gave it not, "Thou hast kept the good wine until now."