St John Chrysostom on the Parallel Gospel
(Homilies LXXXVI, LXXXVII and LXXXVIII in Vol
X, NPNF (1st))
Matthew Chapter 27, Verse 11 And Matthew Chapter 27, Verse 12
"And Jesus stood before the governor; and the governor asked Him,
saying, Art thou the king of the Jews? And Jesus said unto him, Thou sayest.
And when He was accused of the chief priests and eiders, He answered nothing."
Seest thou what He is first asked? which thing most of all they were
continually bringing forward in every way? For since they saw Pilate making
no account of the matters of the law, they direct their accusation to the
state charges. So likewise did they in the case of the apostles, ever bringing
forward these things, and saying that they were going about proclaiming
king one Jesus, speaking as of a mere man, and investing them with a suspicion
Whence it is manifest, that both the rending the garment and the amazement
were a pretense. But all things they got up, and plied, in order to bring
Him to death.
This at any rate Pilate then asked. What then said Christ? "Thou sayest."
He confessed that He was a king, but a heavenly king, which elsewhere also
He spake more dearly, replying to Pilate, "My kingdom is not of this world;"
that neither they nor this man should have an excuse for accusing Him of
such things. And He gives a reason that cannot be gainsaid, saying, "If
I were of this world, my servants would fight, that I should not be delivered."
For this purpose I say, in order to refute this suspicion, He both paid
tribute, and commanded others to pay it, and when they would make Him a
king, He fled.
Wherefore then did he not bring forward these things, it may be said,
at that time, when accused of usurpation? Because having the proofs from
His acts, of His power, His meekness, His gentleness, beyond number, they
were willfully blind, and dealt unfairly, and the tribunal was corrupt.
For these reasons then He replies to nothing, but holds His peace, yet
answering briefly (so as not to get the reputation of arrogance from continual
silence) when the high priest adjured Him, when the governor asked, but
in reply to their accusations He no longer saith anything; for He was not
now likely to persuade them. Even as the prophet declaring this self-same
thing from of old, said, "In His humiliation His judgment was taken away."
At these things the governor marvelled, and indeed it was worthy of
admiration to see Him showing such great forbearance, and holding His peace,
Him that had countless things to say. For neither did they accuse Him from
knowing of any evil thing in Him, but from jealousy and envy only. At least
when they had set false witness, wherefore, having nothing to say, did
they still urge their point? and when they saw Judas was dead, and that
Pilate had washed his hands of it, why were they not pricked with remorse.
For indeed He did many things even at the very time, that they might recover
themselves, but by none were they amended.
What then saith Pilate? "Hearest thou not how many things these witness
against thee?" He wished that He should defend Himself and be acquitted,
wherefore also he said these things; but since He answered nothing, he
devises another thing again.
Of what nature was this? It was a custom for them to release one of
the condemned, and by this means he attempted to deliver Him. For if you
are not willing to release Him as innocent, yet as guilty pardon Him for
the feast's sake.
Seest thou order reversed? For the petition in behalf of the condemned
it was customary to be with the people, and the granting it with the rulers;
but now the contrary hath come to pass, and the ruler petitions the people;
and not even so do they become gentle, but grow more savage and bloodthirsty,
driven to frenzy by the passion of envy. For neither had they whereof they
should accuse Him, and this though He was silent, but they were refuted
even then by reason of the abundance of His righteous deeds, and being
silent He overcame them that say ten thousand things, and are maddened.
"And when he was set down on the judgment seat, his wife sent unto him,
saying, have thou nothing to do with this just man, for I have suffered
many things this day in a dream because of Him." See what a thing takes
place again, sufficient to recall them all. For together with the proof
from the things done, the dream too was no small thing. And wherefore doth
he not see it himself? Either because she was more worthy, or because he,
if he had seen it, would not have been equally believed; or would not so
much as have told it. Therefore it was ordered that the wife should see
it, so that it might be manifest to all. And she doth not merely see it,
but also suffers many things, that from his feeling towards his wife, the
man may be made more reluctant to the murder. And the time too contributed
not a little, for on the very night she saw it.
But it was not safe, it may be said, for him to let Him go, because
they said He made Himself a king. He ought then to have sought for proofs,
and a conviction, and for all the things that are infallible signs of an
usurpation, as, for instance, whether He levied forces, whether He collected
money, whether he forged arms, whether He attempted any other such thing.
But he is led away at random, therefore neither doth Christ acquit him
of the blame, in saying, "He that betrayeth me unto thee hath greater sin."
So that it was from weakness that he yielded and scourged Him, and delivered
He then was unmanly and weak; but the chief priests wicked and criminal.
For since he had found out a device, namely, the law of the feast requiring
him to release a condemned person, what do they contrive in opposition
to that? "They persuaded the multitude," it is said, "that they should
2. See how much care he taketh for them to relieve them from blame,
and how much diligence they employed, so as not to leave to themselves
so much as a shadow of an excuse. For which was right? to let go the acknowledged
criminal, or Him about whose guilt there was a question? For, if in the
case of acknowledged offenders it was fit there should be a liberation,
much more in those of whom there was a doubt. For surely this man did not
seem to them worse than acknowledged murderers. For on this account, it
is not merely said they had a robber; but one noted, that is, who was infamous
in wickedness, who had perpetrated countless murders. But nevertheless
even him did they prefer to the Saviour of the world, and neither did they
reverence the season because it was holy, nor the laws of humanity, nor
any other thing of the kind, but envy had once for all blinded them. And
besides their own wickedness, they corrupt the people also, that for deceiving
them too they might suffer the most extreme punishment.
Since therefore they ask for the other, He saith, "What shall I do then
with the Christ," in this way desiring to put them to the blush, by giving
them the power to choose, that at least out of shame they might ask for
Him, and the whole should be of their bountifulness. For though to say,
He had not done wrong, made them more contentious, yet to require that
He should be saved out of humanity, carries with it persuasion and entreaty
that cannot be gainsaid.
But even then they said, "Crucify Him. But he said, why, what evil hath
He done? but they cried out exceedingly, let Him be crucified. But he,
when he saw that he profited nothing, washed his hands, saying, I am innocent."
Why then didst thou deliver Him up? Why didst thou not rescue Him, as the
centurion did Paul. For that man too was aware that he would please the
Jews; and a sedition had taken place on his account, and a tumult, nevertheless
he stood firm against all. But not so this man, but he was extremely unmanly
and weak, and all were corrupt together. For neither did this man stand
firm against the multitude, nor the multitude against the Jews, and in
in every way their excuse was taken away. For they "cried out exceedingly,"
that is, cried out the more, "Let Him be crucified." For they desired not
only to put Him to death, but also that it should be on a charge of wickedness,
and though the judge was contradicting them, they continued to cry out
the same thing.
Seest thou how many things Christ did in order to recover them? For
like as He often times checked Judas, so likewise did He restrain these
men too, both throughout all His Gospel, and at the very time of His condemnation.
For surely when they saw the ruler and the judge washing his hands of it,
and saying, "I am innocent of this blood," they should have been moved
to compunction both by what was said, and by what was done, as well when
they saw Judas had hanged himself, as when they saw Pilate himself entreating
them to take another in the place of Him. For when the accuser and traitor
condemns himself, and he who gives sentence puts off from himself the guilt,
and such a vision appears the very night, and even as condemned he begs
Him off, what kind of plea will they have? For if they were not willing
that He should be innocent, yet they should not have preferred to him even
a robber, one that was acknowledged to be such, and very notorious.
What then did they? When they saw the judge washing his hands, and saying,
"I am innocent," they cried out "His blood be on us, and on our children."
Then at length when they had given sentence against themselves, he yielded
that all should be done.
See here too their great madness. For passion and wicked desire are
like this. They suffer not men to see anything of what is right. For be
it that ye curse yourselves; why do you draw down the curse upon your children
Nevertheless, the lover of man, though they acted with so much madness,
both against themselves, and against their children, so far from confirming
their sentence upon their children, confirmed it not even on them, but
from the one and from the other received those that repented, and counts
them worthy of good things beyond number. For indeed even Paul was of them,
and the thousands that believed in Jerusalem; for, "thou seest it is said,
brother, how many thousands of Jews there are which believe." And if some
continued in their sin, to themselves let them impute their punishment.
"Then released he Barabbas unto them, but Jesus, when he had scourged
Him, he delivered to be crucified."
And wherefore did he scourge Him. Either as one condemned, or willing
to invest the judgment with due form, or to please them. And yet he ought
to have resisted them. For indeed even before this he had said, "Take ye
Him, and judge Him according to your law." And there were many things that
might have held back him and those men, the signs and the miracles, and
the great patience thirdly, he persuaded him to slay and to deny his murder;
and did not leave him before he had put on him the crowning act of evil.
Wherefore it is necessary for us to resist the beginning. For at any
rate, even if the first sins stopped at themselves, not even so were it
right to despise the first sins; but now they go on also to what is greater,
when the mind is careless. Wherefore we ought to do all things to remove
the beginnings of them.
For look not now at the nature of the sin, that it is little, but that
it becomes a root of great sin when neglected. For if one may say something
marvellous, great sins need not so much earnestness, as such as are little,
and of small account. For the former the very nature of the sin causes
us to abhor, but the little sins by this very thing cast us into remissness;
and allow us not to rouse ourselves heartily for their removal. Wherefore
also they quickly become great, while we sleep. This one may see happening
in bodies also.
So likewise in the instance of Judas, that great wickedness had its
birth. For if it had not seemed to him a little thing to steal the money
of the poor, he would not have been led on to this treachery. Unless it
had seemed to the Jews a little thing to be taken captive by vainglory,
they would not have run on the rock of becoming Christ's murderers. And
indeed all evils we may see arise from this.
For no one quickly and at once rusheth out into vices. For the soul
hath, yea it hath a shame implanted in us, and a reverence for right things;
and it would not at once become so shameless as in one act to east away
everything, but slowly, and by little and little doth it perish, when it
is careless. Thus also did idolatry enter in, men being honored beyond
measure, both the living and the departed; thus also were idols worshipped;
thus too did whoredom prevail, and the other evils.
And see. One man laughed unseasonably; another blamed him; a third took
away the fear. by saying, nothing comes of this. "For what is laughing?
What can come of it?" Of this is bred foolish jesting; from that filthy
talking; then filthy doings.
Again, another being blamed for slandering his neighbors, and reviling,
and calumniating, despised it, saying, evil-speaking is nothing. By this
he begets hatred unspeakable, revilings without end; by the revilings blows,
and by the blows oftentimes murder.
4. From these little things then that wicked spirit thus brings in the
great sins; and from the great despair; having invented this other while
not less mischievous than the former. For to sin destroys not so much as
to despair. For he that hath offended, if he be vigilant, speedily by repentance
amends what hath been done; but he that hath learnt to despond, and doth
not repent, by reason thereof fails of this amendment by not applying the
remedies from repentance.
And he hath a third grievous snare; as when he invests the sin with
a show of devotion. And where hath the devil so far prevailed as to deceive
to this degree? Hear, and beware of his devices. Christ by Paul commanded
"that a woman depart not from her husband, and not to defraud one another,
except by consent;" but some from a love of continence forsooth, having
withdrawn from their own husbands, as though they were doing something
devout, have driven them to adultery. Consider now what an evil it is that
they, undergoing so much toil, should be blamed as having committed the
greatest injustice, and should suffer extreme punishment, and drive their
husbands into the pit of destruction.
Others again, abstaining from meats by a rule of fasting, have by degrees
gone so far as to abhor them; which even of itself brings a very great
But this comes to pass, when any hold fast their own prejudices contrary
to what is approved by the Scriptures. Those also among the Corinthians
thought it was a part of perfection to eat of all things without distinction,
even of things forbidden, but nevertheless this was not of perfection,
but of the utmost lawlessness. Wherefore also Paul earnestly reproves them,
and pronounces them to be worthy of extreme punishment. Others again think
it a sign of piety to wear long hair. And yet this is amongst the things
forbidden, and carries with it much disgrace.
Again, others follow after excessive sorrow for their sins as a profitable
thing; yet it also comes of the devil's wiles, and Judas showed it; at
least in consequence thereof he even hanged himself. Therefore Paul again
was in fear about him that had committed fornication, lest any such thing
should befall him, and persuaded the Corinthians speedily to deliver him,
"lest perhaps such a one should be swallowed up with overmuch sorrow."
Then, indicating that such a result cometh of the snares of that wicked
one, he saith, "Lest Satan should get an advantage over us, for we are
not ignorant of his devices," meaning that he assails us with much craft.
Since if he fought against us plainly and openly, the victory would be
ready and easy; or rather even now, if we be vigilant, victory will be
ready. For indeed against each one: of those ways God hath armed us.
For to persuade us not to despise even these little things, hear what
warning He gives us, saying, "He that saith to his brother, thou fool,
shall be in danger of hell; " and he that hath looked with unchaste eyes
is a complete adulterer. And on them that laugh he pronounces a woe, and
everywhere He removes the beginning and the seeds of evil, and saith we
have to give an account of an idle word. Therefore also Job applied a remedy
even for the thoughts of his children,
But about not despairing, it is said, "Doth he fall, and not arise?
Doth he turn away, and not return?" and, "I do not will the death of the
sinner, so much as that he should turn and live:" and, "To-day if ye will
hear His voice: " and many other such things, both sayings and examples
are set in the Scripture. And in order not to be ruined under the guise
of godly fear, hear Paul saying, "Lest perhaps such a one be swallowed
up by overmuch sorrow."
Knowing therefore these things, let us set for a barrier in all the
ways that pervert the unwary the wisdom which is drawn from the Scriptures.
Neither say, why, what is it, if I gaze curiously at a beautiful woman?
For if thou shouldest commit the adultery in the heart, soon thou wilt
venture on that in flesh. Say not, why, what is it if I should pass by
this poor man? For if thou pass this man by, thou wilt also the next; if
him, then the third.
Neither again say, why, what is it, if I should desire my neighbor's
goods. For this, this caused Ahab's ruin; although he would have paid a
price, yet he took it from one unwilling. For a man ought not to buy by
force, but on persuasion. But if he, who would have paid the fair price,
was so punished, because he took from one unwilling, he who doeth not so
much as this, and taketh by violence from the unwilling, and that when
living under grace, of what punishment will he not be worthy?
In order therefore that we be not punished, keeping ourselves quite
pure from all violence and rapine, and guarding against the sources of
sins together with the sins themselves, let us with much diligence give
heed to virtue; for thus shall we also enjoy the good things eternal by
the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory
world without end. Amen.
Matthew Chapter 27, Verse 27-Matthew Chapter 27, Verse 29
"Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common hall,
and gathered unto him the whole band of soldiers; and they stripped Him,
and put on Him a purple robe; and when they had platted a crown of thorns,
they put it on His head, and a reed in His right hand; and they bowed the
knee before Him, and mocked Him, saying, Hail, king of the Jews."
As though on some signal the devil then was entering in triumph into
all. For, be it that Jews pining with envy and jealousy were mad against
Him, as to the soldiers, whence was it, and from what sort of cause? Is
it not clear that it was the devil who was then entering in fury into the
hearts of all? For indeed they made a pleasure of their insults against
Him, being a savage and ruthless set. I mean that, when they ought to have
been awestruck, when they ought to have wept, which even the people did,
this they did not, but, on the contrary, were despiteful, and insolent;
perhaps themselves also seeking to please the Jews, or it may be doing
all in conformity to their own evil nature.
And the insults were different, and varied For that Divine Head at one
time they buffeted, at another they insulted with the crown of thorns,
at another they smote with the reed, men unholy and accursed!
What plea shall we have after this for being moved by injuries, after
Christ suffered these things? For what was done was the utmost limit of
insolence. For not one member, but the whole entire body throughout was
made an object of insolence; the head through the crown, and the reed,
and the buffeting; the face, being spit upon; the cheeks, being smitten
with the palms of the hands; the whole body by the stripes, by being wrapped
in the robe, and by the pretended worship; the hand by the reed, which
they gave him to hold instead of a sceptre; the mouth again by the offering
of the vinegar. What could be more grievous than these things? What more
For the things that were done go beyond all language. For as though
they were afraid lest they should seem to fall short at all in the crime,
having killed the prophets with their own hands, but this man with the
sentence of a judge, so they do in every deed; and make it the work of
their own hands, and condemn and sentence both among themselves and before
Pilate, saying, "His blood be on us and on our children," and insult Him,
and do despite unto Him themselves, binding Him, leading Him away, and
render themselves authors of the spiteful acts done by the soldiers, and
nail Him to the cross. and revile Him, and spit at Him, and deride Him.
For Pilate contributed nothing in this matter, but they themselves did
every thing, becoming accusers, and judges, and executioners, and all.
And these things are read amongst us, when all meet together. For that
the heathens may not say, that ye display to people and nations the things
that are glorious and illustrious, such as the signs and the miracles,
but that ye hide these which are matters of reproach; the grace of the
Spirit hath brought it to pass, that in the full festival, when men in
multitude and women are present, and all, as one may say, at the great
eve of the passover, then all these things should be read; when the whole
world is present, then are all these acts proclaimed with a clear voice.
And these being read, and made known to all, Christ is believed to be God
and, besides all the rest, is worshipped, even because of this, that He
vouchsafed to stoop so much for us as actually to suffer these things,
and to teach us all virtue.
These things then let us read continually; for indeed great is the gain,
great the advantage to be thence obtained. For when thou seest Him, both
by gestures and by deeds, mocked and worshipped with so much derision,
and beaten and suffering the utmost insults, though thou be very stone,
thou wilt become softer than any wax, and wilt cast out of thy soul all
Hear therefore also what follows. For after "they had mocked Him, they
led Him to crucify Him," it is said, and when they had stripped Him, they
took His garments, and sat down and watched Him, when He should die. And
they divide His garments amongst them, which sort of thing is done in the
case of very vile and abject criminals, and such as have no one belonging
to them, and are in utter desolation.
They parted the garments, by which such great miracles were done. But
they wrought none now, Christ restraining His unspeakable power. And this
was no small addition of insult. For as to one base and abject, as I said,
and the vilest of all men; so do they dare to do all things. To the thieves
at any rate they did nothing of the kind, but to Christ they dare it all.
And they crucified Him in the midst of them, that He might share in their
And they gave Him gall to drink, and this to insult Him, but He would
not. But another saith, that having tasted it, He said, "It is finished."
And what meaneth, "It is finished?" The prophecy was fulfilled concerning
Him. "For they gave me," it is said, "gall for my meat, and for my thirst
they gave me vinegar to drink." But neither doth that evangelist indicate
that He drank, for merely to taste differs not from not drinking, but hath
one and the same signification.
But nevertheless not even here doth their contumely stop, but after
having stripped and crucified Him, and offered Him vinegar, they proceeded
still further, and beholding Him impaled upon the cross, they revile Him,
both they themselves and the passers by; and this was more grievous than
all, that on the charge of being an impostor and deceiver He suffered these
things, and as a boaster, and vainly pretending what He said. Therefore
they both crucified Him publicly, that they might make a show of it in
the sight of all; and therefore also they did it by the hands of the soldiers,
that these things being perpetrated even by a public tribunal, the insult
might be the greater.
5. And yet who would not have been moved by the multitude that was following
Him, and lamenting Him? Nay, not these wild beasts. Wherefore also He to
the multitude vouchsafes an answer, but to these men not so. For after
having done what they would, they endeavor also to injure His honor, fearing
His resurrection. Therefore they say these things publicly, and crucified
thieves with Him, and wishing to prove Him a deceiver, they say, "Thou
that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days come down from
the cross." For since on telling Pilate to remove the accusation (this
was the writing, "The king of the Jews"), they prevailed not, but he persevered
in saying," What I have written, I have written," they then endeavor by
their derision of Him to show that He is not a king.
Wherefore they said those things, and also these. If "He is the king
of Israel, let Him come down now from the cross. He saved others, Himself
He cannot save," aiming hereby to bring discredit even on His former miracles.
And again, "If He be Son of God, and He will have Him, let Him save Him."
O execrable; most execrable ! What, were not the prophets prophets,
nor the righteous men righteous, because God rescued them not out of their
dangers. Nay surely they were, though suffering these things. What then
could be equal to your folly? For if the coming of the dangers upon them
did not injure their honor with you, how much more in the case of this
man, was it wrong for you to be offended, when both by what He did, by
what He said, He was ever correcting beforehand this suspicion of yours.
Yet nevertheless, even when these things were said and done, they prevailed
nothing, not even at the very time. At any rate, he, who was depraved in
such great wickedness, and who had spent his whole life in murders and
house-breakings, when these things were being said, then confessed Him,
and made mention of a kingdom, and the people bewailed Him. And yet the
things that were done seemed to testify the contrary in the eyes of those
who knew not the mysterious dispensations, that He was weak and of no power,
nevertheless truth prevailed even by the contrary things.
Hearing then these things, let us arm ourselves against all rage, against
all anger. Shouldest thou perceive thy heart swelling, seal thy breast
setting upon it the cross. Call to mind some one of the things that then
took place, and thou wilt cast out as dust all rage by the recollection
of the things that were done. Consider the words, the actions; consider
that He is Lord, and thou servant. He is suffering for thee, thou for thyself;
He in behalf of them who had been benefited by Him and had crucified Him,
thou in behalf of thyself; He in behalf of them who had used Him despitefully,
thou oftentimes at the hands of them who have been injured. He in the sight
of the whole city, or rather of the whole people of the Jews, both strangers,
and those of the country, before whom He spake those merciful words, but
thou in the presence of few; and what. was more insulting to Him, that
even His disciples forsook Him. For those, who before paid Him attention,
had deserted Him, but His enemies and foes, having got Him in the midst
of themselves on the cross, insulted, reviled, mocked, derided, scoffed
at Him, Jews and soldiers from below, from above thieves on either side:
for indeed the thieves insulted, and upbraided Him both of them. How then
saith Luke that one "rebuked?" Both things were done, for at first both
upbraided Him, but afterwards one did so no more. For that thou mightest
not think the thing had been done by any agreement, or that the thief was
not a thief, by his insolence he showeth thee, that up on the cross he
was a thief and an enemy, and at once was changed.
Considering then all these things, control thyself. For what sufferest
thou like what thy Lord suffered? Wast thou publicly insulted? But not
like these things. Art thou mocked? yet not thy whole body, not being thus
scourged, and stripped. And even if thou wast buffeted, yet not like this.
3. And add to this, I pray thee, by whom, and wherefore, and when, and
who it was; and (the most grievous matter) that these things being done,
no one found fault, no one blamed what was done, but on the contrary all
rather approved, and joined in mocking Him and in jeering at Him; and as
a boaster, impostor, and deceiver, and not able to prove in His works the
things that He said, so did they revile Him. But He held His peace to all,
preparing for us the most powerful incentives to long suffering.
But we, though hearing such things, are not patient so much as to servants,
but we rush and kick worse than wild asses, with respect to injuries against
ourselves, being savage and inhuman; but of those against God not making
much account. And with respect to friends too we have the same disposition;
should any one vex us, we bear it not; should he insult us, we are savage
more than wild beasts, we who are reading these things every day. A disciple
betrayed Him, the rest forsook Him and fled, they that had been benefited
by Him spat at Him, the servants of the high priest smote Him with the
palm of the hand, the soldiers buffeted Him; they that passed by jeered
Him and reviled Him, the thieves accused Him; and to no man did He utter
a word, but by silence overcame all; instructing thee by His actions, that
the more meekly thou shalt endure, the more wilt thou prevail over them
that do thee evil, and wilt be an object of admiration before all. For
who will not admire him that endures with forbearance the insults he receives
from them that are using him despitefully? For even as, though any man
suffer justly, yet enduring the evil meekly, he is considered by the more
part to suffer unjustly; so though one suffer unjustly, yet if he be violent,
he will get the suspicion of suffering justly, and will be an object of
ridicule, as being dragged captive by his anger, and losing his own nobility.
For such a one, we must not call so much as a freeman, though he be lord
over ten thousand servants.
But did some person exceedingly provoke thee? And what of that? For
then should self-control be shown, since when there is no one to vex, we
see even the wild beasts gentle; for neither are they always savage, but
when any one rouses them. And we therefore, if we are only then quiet,
when there is no one provoking us, what advantage have we over them. For
they are both oftentimes justly indignant, and have much excuse, for by
being stirred and goaded are they roused, and besides these things they
are devoid of reason, and have savageness in their nature.
But whence, I pray thee, canst thou find a plea for being savage and
fierce? What hardship hast thou suffered? Hast thou been robbed? For this
self-same reason shouldest thou endure it, so as to gain more amply. But
wast thou deprived of character? And what is this? Thy condition is in
no way worsened by this, if thou practise self-command. But if thou sufferest
no grievance, whence art thou angry with him that hath done thee no harm,
but hath even benefited thee? For they who honor, make them that are not
watchful the more vain; but they who insult and despise render those that
take heed to themselves more steadfast. For the careless are more injured
by being honored than by being insulted. And the one set of persons, if
we be sober, become to us authors of self-control, but the others excite
our pride, they fill us with boastfulness, vainglory, folly, they make
our soul the feebler.
And to this fathers bear witness, who do not flatter their own children
so much as they chide them, fearing lest from the praise they should receive
any harm, and their teachers use the same remedy to them. So that if we
are to avoid any one, it should be those that flatter us rather than those
that insult us; for this bait brings greater mischief than insult to them,
who do not take heed, and it is more difficult to control this feeling
than that. And the reward too is far more abundant from thence, and the
admiration greater. For indeed it is more worthy of admiration to see a
man insulted, and not moved, than beaten and smitten, and not falling.
And how is it possible not to be moved? one may say. Hath any one insulted
thee? Place the sign upon thy breast, call to mind all the things that
were then done; and all is quenched. Consider not the insults only, but
if also any good hath been ever done unto thee, by him that hath insulted
thee, and straightway thou wilt become meek, or rather consider before
all things the fear of God, and soon thou wilt be mild and gentle.
4. Together with these things even from thine own servants take a lesson
concerning these matters; and when thou seest thyself insulting, but thy
servant holding his peace, consider that it is possible to practise self-control,
and condemn thyself for being violent; and in the very time of offering
insults learn not to insult; and thus not even when insulted, wilt thou
be vexed. Consider that he who is insolent is beside himself and mad, and
thou wilt not feel indignant, when insulted, since the possessed strike
us, and we, so far from being provoked, do rather pity them. This do thou
also; pity him that is insolent to thee, for he is held in subjection by
a dreadful monster, rage, by a grievous demon, anger. Set him free as he
is wrought upon by a grievous demon, and going quickly to ruin. For so
great is this disease as not to need even time for the destruction of him
that is seized with it. Wherefore also one said, "The sway of his fury
shall be his fall; " by this most of all showing its tyranny, that in a
short time it works great ills, and needs not to continue long with us,
so that if in addition to its strength it were apt to last, it would indeed
be hard to strive against.
I should like to show what the man is who insulteth, what he that practises
self-control, and to bring nakedly before you the soul of the one and the
other. For thou shouldest see the one like a sea tost with a tempest, but
the other like a harbor free from disturbance. For it is not disturbed
by these evil blasts, but puts them to rest easily. For indeed they who
are insulting, do everything in order to make it sting. When then they
fail of that hope, even they are thenceforth at peace, and go away amended.
For it is impossible that a man, who is angry, should not utterly condemn
himself, even as on the other hand it is impossible for one who is not
angry to be self-condemned. For though it be necessary to retaliate, it
is possible to do this without anger (and it were more easy and more wise
than with anger) and to have no painful feeling. For if we be willing,
the good things will be from ourselves, and we shall be with the grace
of God sufficient for our own safety and honor.
For why seekest thou the glory that cometh from another? Do thou honor
thyself, and no one will be able to insult thee; but if thou dishonor thyself,
though all should honor thee, thou wilt not be honored. For like as, unless
we put ourselves in an evil state, no one else puts us in such a state;
even so unless we insult ourselves, no one else can put us to shame.
For let any man be great and worthy of admiration, and let all men call
him an adulterer, a thief, a violater of tombs, a murderer, a robber, and
let him be neither provoked or indignant, nor be conscious to himself of
any of these crimes, what disgrace will he thence undergo? None. What then,
you may say, if many have such an opinion of him? Not even so is he disgraced,
but they bring shame upon themselves, by accounting one, who is not such,
to be such. For tell me, if any one think the sun to be dark, doth he bring
an ill name on that heavenly body, or on himself? Surely on himself, getting
himself the character of being blind or mad, So also they that account
wicked men good. and they that make the opposite error, disgrace themselves.
Wherefore we ought to give the greater diligence, to keep our conscience
clear, and to give no handle against ourselves, nor matter for evil suspicion;
but if others will be mad, even when this is our disposition, not to care
very much, nor to grieve. For he that hath got the character of a wicked
man, being a good man, is in no degree thereby hurt as regards his being
such as he is; but he that hath been suspecting another vainly and causelessly,
receives the utmost harm; as, on the other hand, the wicked man, if he
be supposed to be the contrary, will gain nothing thence, but will both
have a heavier judgment, and be led into greater carelessness. For he that
is such and is suspected thereof, may perhaps be humbled, and acknowledge
his sins; but when he escapes detection, he falls into a state past feeling.
For if, while all are accusing them, offenders are hardly stirred up to
compunction, when so far from accusing them, some even praise them, at
what time will they who are living in vice be able to open their eyes?
Hearest thou that Paul also blames for this, that the Corinthians (so far
from permitting him that had been guilty of fornication, to acknowledge
his own sin), applauding and honoring him, did on the contrary urge him
on in vice thereby? Wherefore, I pray, let us leave the suspicions of the
multitude, their insults and their honors, and let us be diligent about
one thing only, that we be conscious to ourselves of no evil thing, nor
insult our own selves. For so both here, and in the world to come, we shall
enjoy much glory, unto which God grant we all may attain, by the grace
and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory world without
Matthew Chapter 27, Verse 45-Matthew Chapter 27, Verse 48
"Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the earth until
the ninth hour. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice,
and said, Eli, Eli, lima sabachthani? that is to say, my God my God, why
hast thou forsaken me? Some of them that stood there, when they heard that
said, this man calleth for Elias. And straight way one of them ran, and
took a sponge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave
Him to drink."
This is the sign which before He had promised to give them when they
asked it, saying, "An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign,
and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas;
" meaning His cross, and His death, His burial, and His resurrection. And
again, declaring in another way the virtue of the cross, He said, "When
ye have lifted up the Son of Man, then shall ye know that I am He." And
what He saith is to this purport: "When ye have crucified me, and think
ye have overcome me, then, above all, shall ye know my might."
For after the crucifixion, the city was destroyed, and the Jewish state
came to an end, they fell away from their polity and their freedom, the
gospel flourished, the word' was spread abroad to the ends of the world;
both sea and land, both the inhabited earth and the desert perpetually
proclaim its' power. These things then He meaneth, and those which took
place at the very time of the crucifixion. For indeed it was much more
marvellous that these things should be done, when He was nailed to the
cross, than when He was walking on earth. And not in this respect only
was the wonder, but because from heaven also was that done which. they
had sought, and it was over all the world, which had never before happened,
but in Egypt only, when the passover was to be fulfilled. For indeed those
events were a type of these.
And observe when it took place. At midday, that all that dwell on the
earth may know it, when it was day all over the world; which was enough
to convert them, not by the greatness of the miracle only, but also by
its taking place in due season. For after all their insulting, and their
lawless derision, this is done, when they had let go their anger, when
they had ceased mocking, when they were satiated with their jeerings, and
had spoken all that they were minded; then He shows the darkness, in order
that at least so (having vented their anger) they may profit by the miracle.
For this was more marvellous than to come down from the cross, that being
on the cross He should work these things. For whether they thought He Himself
had done it, they ought to have believed and to have feared; or whether
not He, but the Father, yet thereby ought they to have been moved to compunction,
for that darkness was a token of His anger at their crime. For that it
was not an eclipse, but both wrath and indignation, is not hence alone
manifest, but also by the time, for it continued three hours, but an eclipse
takes place in one moment of time, and they know it, who have seen this;
and indeed it hath taken place even in our generation.
And how, you may say, did not all marvel, and account Him to be God?
Because the race of man was then held in a state of great carelessness
and vice. And this miracle was but one, and when it had taken place, immediately
passed away; and no one was concerned to inquire into the cause of it,
and great was the prejudice and the habit of ungodliness. And they knew
not what was the cause of that which took place, and they thought perhaps
this happened so, in the way of an eclipse or some natural effect. And
why dost thou marvel about them that are without, that knew nothing, neither
inquired by reason of great indifference, when even those that were in
Judaea itself, after so many miracles, yet continued using Him despitefully,
although He plainly showed them that He Himself wrought this thing.
And for this reason, even after this He speaks, that they might learn
that He was still alive, and that He Himself did this, and that they might
become by this also more gentle, and He saith, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?"
that unto His last breath they might see that He honors His Father, and
is no adversary of God. Wherefore also He uttered a certain cry from the
prophet, even to His last hour bearing witness to the Old Testament, and
not simply a cry from the prophet, but also in Hebrew, so as to be plain
and intelligible to them, and by all things He shows how He is of one mind
with Him that begat Him.
But mark herein also their wantonness, and intemperance, and folly.
They thought (it is said) that it was Elias whom He called, and straightway
they gave Him vinegar to drink. But another came unto Him, and "pierced
His side with a spear." What could be more lawless, what more brutal, than
these men; who carried their madness to so great a length, offering insult
at last even to a dead body?
But mark thou, I pray thee, how He made use of their wickednesses for
our salvation. For after the blow the fountains of our salvation gushed
forth from thence.
"And Jesus, when He had cried with a loud voice, yielded up the Ghost."
This is what He said, "I have power to lay down my life, and I have power
to take it again," and, "I lay it down of myself." So for this cause He
cried with the voice, that it might be shown that the act is done by power.
Mark at any rate saith, that "Pilate marvelled if He were already dead:"
and that the centurion for this cause above all believed, because He died
This cry rent the veil, and opened the tombs, and made the house desolate.
And He did this, not as offering insult to the temple (for how should He,
who saith, "Make not my Father's house a house of merchandise," but declaring
them to be unworthy even of His abiding there; like as also when He delivered
it over to the Babylonians. But not for this only were these things done,
but what took place was a prophecy of the coming desolation, and of the
change into the greater and higher state; and a sign of His might.
And together with these things He showed Himself also by what followed
after these things, by the raising of the dead. For in the instance of
Elisha; one on touching a dead body rose again, but now by a voice He raised
them, His body continuing up there, on the cross. And besides, those things
were a type of this. For that this might be believed, therefore is that
all done. And they are not merely raised, but also rocks are rent, and
the earth shaken, that they might learn, that He was able to strike themselves
blind, and to rend them in pieces. For He that cleft rocks asunder, and
darkened the world, much more could have done these things to them, had
it been His will. But He would not, but having discharged His wrath upon
the elements, them it was His will to save by clemency. But they abated
not their madness. Such is envy, such is jealousy, it is not easily stayed.
At that time then they were impudent in setting themselves against the
actual appearances; and afterwards even against the things themselves,
when a seal being put upon Him, and soldiers watching Him, He rose again,
and they heard these things from the very guards; they even gave money,
in order both to corrupt others, and to steal away the history of the resurrection.
Marvel not therefore if at this time also they were perverse, being thus
altogether prepared to set themselves impudently against all things; but observe
this other point, how great signs He had wrought, some from Heaven, some on
earth, some in the very temple, at once marking His indignation, and at the same
time showing that what were unapproachable are now to be entered, and that
Heaven shall be opened; and the work removed to the true Holy of Holies. And
they indeed said, "If He be the King of Israel, let Him come down now from the
cross," but He shows that He is King of all the world. And whereas those men
said, "Thou that destroyest this temple, and buildest it in three days," He
shows that it shall be made forever desolate. Again they said, "He saved others,
Himself He cannot save." but He while abiding on the cross proved this most
abundantly on the bodies of His servants. For if for Lazarus to rise on the
fourth day was a great thing, how much more for all those who had long ago
fallen asleep, at once to appear alive, which was a sign of the future
resurrection. For, "many bodies of the saints which slept, arose," it is said,
"and went into the holy city, and appeared to many." For in order that what was
done might not be accounted to be an imagination, they appear, even to many, in
the city. And the Centurion too then glorified God, saying, "Truly this was a
righteous man. And the multitudes that came together to that sight, returned
beating their breasts." So great was the power of the crucified, that after so
many mockings, and scoffs, and jeers, both the centurion was moved to
compunction, and the people. And some say that there is also a martyrdom of this
centurion, who after these things grew to manhood in the faith.