Matthew Chapter 27, Verse 27-Matthew Chapter 27, Verse 29
"Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common hall,
and gathered unto him the whole band of soldiers; and they stripped Him,
and put on Him a purple robe; and when they had platted a crown of thorns,
they put it on His head, and a reed in His right hand; and they bowed the
knee before Him, and mocked Him, saying, Hail, king of the Jews."
As though on some signal the devil then was entering in triumph into
all. For, be it that Jews pining with envy and jealousy were mad against
Him, as to the soldiers, whence was it, and from what sort of cause? Is
it not clear that it was the devil who was then entering in fury into the
hearts of all? For indeed they made a pleasure of their insults against
Him, being a savage and ruthless set. I mean that, when they ought to have
been awestruck, when they ought to have wept, which even the people did,
this they did not, but, on the contrary, were despiteful, and insolent;
perhaps themselves also seeking to please the Jews, or it may be doing
all in conformity to their own evil nature.
And the insults were different, and varied For that Divine Head at one
time they buffeted, at another they insulted with the crown of thorns,
at another they smote with the reed, men unholy and accursed!
What plea shall we have after this for being moved by injuries, after
Christ suffered these things? For what was done was the utmost limit of
insolence. For not one member, but the whole entire body throughout was
made an object of insolence; the head through the crown, and the reed,
and the buffeting; the face, being spit upon; the cheeks, being smitten
with the palms of the hands; the whole body by the stripes, by being wrapped
in the robe, and by the pretended worship; the hand by the reed, which
they gave him to hold instead of a sceptre; the mouth again by the offering
of the vinegar. What could be more grievous than these things? What more
For the things that were done go beyond all language. For as though
they were afraid lest they should seem to fall short at all in the crime,
having killed the prophets with their own hands, but this man with the
sentence of a judge, so they do in every deed; and make it the work of
their own hands, and condemn and sentence both among themselves and before
Pilate, saying, "His blood be on us and on our children," and insult Him,
and do despite unto Him themselves, binding Him, leading Him away, and
render themselves authors of the spiteful acts done by the soldiers, and
nail Him to the cross. and revile Him, and spit at Him, and deride Him.
For Pilate contributed nothing in this matter, but they themselves did
every thing, becoming accusers, and judges, and executioners, and all.
And these things are read amongst us, when all meet together. For that
the heathens may not say, that ye display to people and nations the things
that are glorious and illustrious, such as the signs and the miracles,
but that ye hide these which are matters of reproach; the grace of the
Spirit hath brought it to pass, that in the full festival, when men in
multitude and women are present, and all, as one may say, at the great
eve of the passover, then all these things should be read; when the whole
world is present, then are all these acts proclaimed with a clear voice.
And these being read, and made known to all, Christ is believed to be God
and, besides all the rest, is worshipped, even because of this, that He
vouchsafed to stoop so much for us as actually to suffer these things,
and to teach us all virtue.
These things then let us read continually; for indeed great is the gain,
great the advantage to be thence obtained. For when thou seest Him, both
by gestures and by deeds, mocked and worshipped with so much derision,
and beaten and suffering the utmost insults, though thou be very stone,
thou wilt become softer than any wax, and wilt cast out of thy soul all
Hear therefore also what follows. For after "they had mocked Him, they
led Him to crucify Him," it is said, and when they had stripped Him, they
took His garments, and sat down and watched Him, when He should die. And
they divide His garments amongst them, which sort of thing is done in the
case of very vile and abject criminals, and such as have no one belonging
to them, and are in utter desolation.
They parted the garments, by which such great miracles were done. But
they wrought none now, Christ restraining His unspeakable power. And this
was no small addition of insult. For as to one base and abject, as I said,
and the vilest of all men; so do they dare to do all things. To the thieves
at any rate they did nothing of the kind, but to Christ they dare it all.
And they crucified Him in the midst of them, that He might share in their
And they gave Him gall to drink, and this to insult Him, but He would
not. But another saith, that having tasted it, He said, "It is finished."
And what meaneth, "It is finished?" The prophecy was fulfilled concerning
Him. "For they gave me," it is said, "gall for my meat, and for my thirst
they gave me vinegar to drink." But neither doth that evangelist indicate
that He drank, for merely to taste differs not from not drinking, but hath
one and the same signification.
But nevertheless not even here doth their contumely stop, but after
having stripped and crucified Him, and offered Him vinegar, they proceeded
still further, and beholding Him impaled upon the cross, they revile Him,
both they themselves and the passers by; and this was more grievous than
all, that on the charge of being an impostor and deceiver He suffered these
things, and as a boaster, and vainly pretending what He said. Therefore
they both crucified Him publicly, that they might make a show of it in
the sight of all; and therefore also they did it by the hands of the soldiers,
that these things being perpetrated even by a public tribunal, the insult
might be the greater.
5. And yet who would not have been moved by the multitude that was following
Him, and lamenting Him? Nay, not these wild beasts. Wherefore also He to
the multitude vouchsafes an answer, but to these men not so. For after
having done what they would, they endeavor also to injure His honor, fearing
His resurrection. Therefore they say these things publicly, and crucified
thieves with Him, and wishing to prove Him a deceiver, they say, "Thou
that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days come down from
the cross." For since on telling Pilate to remove the accusation (this
was the writing, "The king of the Jews"), they prevailed not, but he persevered
in saying," What I have written, I have written," they then endeavor by
their derision of Him to show that He is not a king.
Wherefore they said those things, and also these. If "He is the king
of Israel, let Him come down now from the cross. He saved others, Himself
He cannot save," aiming hereby to bring discredit even on His former miracles.
And again, "If He be Son of God, and He will have Him, let Him save Him."
O execrable; most execrable ! What, were not the prophets prophets,
nor the righteous men righteous, because God rescued them not out of their
dangers. Nay surely they were, though suffering these things. What then
could be equal to your folly? For if the coming of the dangers upon them
did not injure their honor with you, how much more in the case of this
man, was it wrong for you to be offended, when both by what He did, by
what He said, He was ever correcting beforehand this suspicion of yours.
Yet nevertheless, even when these things were said and done, they prevailed
nothing, not even at the very time. At any rate, he, who was depraved in
such great wickedness, and who had spent his whole life in murders and
house-breakings, when these things were being said, then confessed Him,
and made mention of a kingdom, and the people bewailed Him. And yet the
things that were done seemed to testify the contrary in the eyes of those
who knew not the mysterious dispensations, that He was weak and of no power,
nevertheless truth prevailed even by the contrary things.
Hearing then these things, let us arm ourselves against all rage, against
all anger. Shouldest thou perceive thy heart swelling, seal thy breast
setting upon it the cross. Call to mind some one of the things that then
took place, and thou wilt cast out as dust all rage by the recollection
of the things that were done. Consider the words, the actions; consider
that He is Lord, and thou servant. He is suffering for thee, thou for thyself;
He in behalf of them who had been benefited by Him and had crucified Him,
thou in behalf of thyself; He in behalf of them who had used Him despitefully,
thou oftentimes at the hands of them who have been injured. He in the sight
of the whole city, or rather of the whole people of the Jews, both strangers,
and those of the country, before whom He spake those merciful words, but
thou in the presence of few; and what. was more insulting to Him, that
even His disciples forsook Him. For those, who before paid Him attention,
had deserted Him, but His enemies and foes, having got Him in the midst
of themselves on the cross, insulted, reviled, mocked, derided, scoffed
at Him, Jews and soldiers from below, from above thieves on either side:
for indeed the thieves insulted, and upbraided Him both of them. How then
saith Luke that one "rebuked?" Both things were done, for at first both
upbraided Him, but afterwards one did so no more. For that thou mightest
not think the thing had been done by any agreement, or that the thief was
not a thief, by his insolence he showeth thee, that up on the cross he
was a thief and an enemy, and at once was changed.
Considering then all these things, control thyself. For what sufferest
thou like what thy Lord suffered? Wast thou publicly insulted? But not
like these things. Art thou mocked? yet not thy whole body, not being thus
scourged, and stripped. And even if thou wast buffeted, yet not like this.
3. And add to this, I pray thee, by whom, and wherefore, and when, and
who it was; and (the most grievous matter) that these things being done,
no one found fault, no one blamed what was done, but on the contrary all
rather approved, and joined in mocking Him and in jeering at Him; and as
a boaster, impostor, and deceiver, and not able to prove in His works the
things that He said, so did they revile Him. But He held His peace to all,
preparing for us the most powerful incentives to long suffering.
But we, though hearing such things, are not patient so much as to servants,
but we rush and kick worse than wild asses, with respect to injuries against
ourselves, being savage and inhuman; but of those against God not making
much account. And with respect to friends too we have the same disposition;
should any one vex us, we bear it not; should he insult us, we are savage
more than wild beasts, we who are reading these things every day. A disciple
betrayed Him, the rest forsook Him and fled, they that had been benefited
by Him spat at Him, the servants of the high priest smote Him with the
palm of the hand, the soldiers buffeted Him; they that passed by jeered
Him and reviled Him, the thieves accused Him; and to no man did He utter
a word, but by silence overcame all; instructing thee by His actions, that
the more meekly thou shalt endure, the more wilt thou prevail over them
that do thee evil, and wilt be an object of admiration before all. For
who will not admire him that endures with forbearance the insults he receives
from them that are using him despitefully? For even as, though any man
suffer justly, yet enduring the evil meekly, he is considered by the more
part to suffer unjustly; so though one suffer unjustly, yet if he be violent,
he will get the suspicion of suffering justly, and will be an object of
ridicule, as being dragged captive by his anger, and losing his own nobility.
For such a one, we must not call so much as a freeman, though he be lord
over ten thousand servants.
But did some person exceedingly provoke thee? And what of that? For
then should self-control be shown, since when there is no one to vex, we
see even the wild beasts gentle; for neither are they always savage, but
when any one rouses them. And we therefore, if we are only then quiet,
when there is no one provoking us, what advantage have we over them. For
they are both oftentimes justly indignant, and have much excuse, for by
being stirred and goaded are they roused, and besides these things they
are devoid of reason, and have savageness in their nature.
But whence, I pray thee, canst thou find a plea for being savage and
fierce? What hardship hast thou suffered? Hast thou been robbed? For this
self-same reason shouldest thou endure it, so as to gain more amply. But
wast thou deprived of character? And what is this? Thy condition is in
no way worsened by this, if thou practise self-command. But if thou sufferest
no grievance, whence art thou angry with him that hath done thee no harm,
but hath even benefited thee? For they who honor, make them that are not
watchful the more vain; but they who insult and despise render those that
take heed to themselves more steadfast. For the careless are more injured
by being honored than by being insulted. And the one set of persons, if
we be sober, become to us authors of self-control, but the others excite
our pride, they fill us with boastfulness, vainglory, folly, they make
our soul the feebler.
And to this fathers bear witness, who do not flatter their own children
so much as they chide them, fearing lest from the praise they should receive
any harm, and their teachers use the same remedy to them. So that if we
are to avoid any one, it should be those that flatter us rather than those
that insult us; for this bait brings greater mischief than insult to them,
who do not take heed, and it is more difficult to control this feeling
than that. And the reward too is far more abundant from thence, and the
admiration greater. For indeed it is more worthy of admiration to see a
man insulted, and not moved, than beaten and smitten, and not falling.
And how is it possible not to be moved? one may say. Hath any one insulted
thee? Place the sign upon thy breast, call to mind all the things that
were then done; and all is quenched. Consider not the insults only, but
if also any good hath been ever done unto thee, by him that hath insulted
thee, and straightway thou wilt become meek, or rather consider before
all things the fear of God, and soon thou wilt be mild and gentle.
4. Together with these things even from thine own servants take a lesson
concerning these matters; and when thou seest thyself insulting, but thy
servant holding his peace, consider that it is possible to practise self-control,
and condemn thyself for being violent; and in the very time of offering
insults learn not to insult; and thus not even when insulted, wilt thou
be vexed. Consider that he who is insolent is beside himself and mad, and
thou wilt not feel indignant, when insulted, since the possessed strike
us, and we, so far from being provoked, do rather pity them. This do thou
also; pity him that is insolent to thee, for he is held in subjection by
a dreadful monster, rage, by a grievous demon, anger. Set him free as he
is wrought upon by a grievous demon, and going quickly to ruin. For so
great is this disease as not to need even time for the destruction of him
that is seized with it. Wherefore also one said, "The sway of his fury
shall be his fall; " by this most of all showing its tyranny, that in a
short time it works great ills, and needs not to continue long with us,
so that if in addition to its strength it were apt to last, it would indeed
be hard to strive against.
I should like to show what the man is who insulteth, what he that practises
self-control, and to bring nakedly before you the soul of the one and the
other. For thou shouldest see the one like a sea tost with a tempest, but
the other like a harbor free from disturbance. For it is not disturbed
by these evil blasts, but puts them to rest easily. For indeed they who
are insulting, do everything in order to make it sting. When then they
fail of that hope, even they are thenceforth at peace, and go away amended.
For it is impossible that a man, who is angry, should not utterly condemn
himself, even as on the other hand it is impossible for one who is not
angry to be self-condemned. For though it be necessary to retaliate, it
is possible to do this without anger (and it were more easy and more wise
than with anger) and to have no painful feeling. For if we be willing,
the good things will be from ourselves, and we shall be with the grace
of God sufficient for our own safety and honor.
For why seekest thou the glory that cometh from another? Do thou honor
thyself, and no one will be able to insult thee; but if thou dishonor thyself,
though all should honor thee, thou wilt not be honored. For like as, unless
we put ourselves in an evil state, no one else puts us in such a state;
even so unless we insult ourselves, no one else can put us to shame.
For let any man be great and worthy of admiration, and let all men call
him an adulterer, a thief, a violater of tombs, a murderer, a robber, and
let him be neither provoked or indignant, nor be conscious to himself of
any of these crimes, what disgrace will he thence undergo? None. What then,
you may say, if many have such an opinion of him? Not even so is he disgraced,
but they bring shame upon themselves, by accounting one, who is not such,
to be such. For tell me, if any one think the sun to be dark, doth he bring
an ill name on that heavenly body, or on himself? Surely on himself, getting
himself the character of being blind or mad, So also they that account
wicked men good. and they that make the opposite error, disgrace themselves.
Wherefore we ought to give the greater diligence, to keep our conscience
clear, and to give no handle against ourselves, nor matter for evil suspicion;
but if others will be mad, even when this is our disposition, not to care
very much, nor to grieve. For he that hath got the character of a wicked
man, being a good man, is in no degree thereby hurt as regards his being
such as he is; but he that hath been suspecting another vainly and causelessly,
receives the utmost harm; as, on the other hand, the wicked man, if he
be supposed to be the contrary, will gain nothing thence, but will both
have a heavier judgment, and be led into greater carelessness. For he that
is such and is suspected thereof, may perhaps be humbled, and acknowledge
his sins; but when he escapes detection, he falls into a state past feeling.
For if, while all are accusing them, offenders are hardly stirred up to
compunction, when so far from accusing them, some even praise them, at
what time will they who are living in vice be able to open their eyes?
Hearest thou that Paul also blames for this, that the Corinthians (so far
from permitting him that had been guilty of fornication, to acknowledge
his own sin), applauding and honoring him, did on the contrary urge him
on in vice thereby? Wherefore, I pray, let us leave the suspicions of the
multitude, their insults and their honors, and let us be diligent about
one thing only, that we be conscious to ourselves of no evil thing, nor
insult our own selves. For so both here, and in the world to come, we shall
enjoy much glory, unto which God grant we all may attain, by the grace
and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory world without