"But Joseph went, and begged the body." This was Joseph, who
was concealing his discipleship of late; now however he had become very
bold after the death of Christ. For neither was he an obscure person, nor
of the unnoticed; but one of the council, and highly distinguished; from
which circumstance especially one may see his courage. For he exposed himself
to death, taking upon him enmity with all, by his affection to Jesus, both
having dared to beg the body, and not having desisted until he obtained
it. But not by taking it only, nor by burying it in a costly manner, but
also by laying it in his own new tomb, he showeth his love, and his courage.
And this was not so ordered without purpose, but so there should not be
any bare suspicion, that one had risen instead of another.
"And there was Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary, sitting over against
the sepulchre." For what purpose do these wait by it? As yet they knew
nothing great, as was meet, and high about Him, wherefore also they had
brought ointments, and were waiting at the tomb, so that if the madness
of the Jews should relax, they might go and embrace the body. Seest thou
women's courage? seest thou their affection? seest thou their noble spirit
in money? their noble spirit even unto death?
Let us men imitate the women; let us not forsake Jesus in temptations.
For they for Him even dead spent so much and exposed their lives, but we
(for again I say the same things) neither feed Him when hungry, nor clothe
Him when naked, but seeing Him begging, we pass Him by. And yet if ye saw
Himself, every one would strip himself of all his goods. But even now it
is the same. For He Himself has said, I am he. Wherefore then dost thou
not strip thyself of all? For indeed even now thou hearest Him say, Thou
doest it unto me; and there is no difference whether thou givest to this
man or to Him; thou hast nothing less than these women that then fed Him,
but even much more. But be not perplexed! For it is not so much to have
fed Him appearing in His own person, which would be enough to prevail with
a heart of stone, as (because of His mere word) to wait upon the poor,
the maimed, him that is bent down. For in the former case, the look and
the dignity of Him who appears divides with thee that which is done; but
here the reward is entire for thy benevolence; and there is the proof of
the greater reverence towards Him, when at His mere word waiting upon thy
fellow-servant thou refreshest him in all things. Refresh him, and believe
Him, who receiveth it, and saith, Thou givest to me. For unless thou hadst
given to Him, He would not have counted thee worthy of a kingdom. If thou
hadst not turned away from Him, He would not have sent thee to hell, if
thou hadst overlooked a chance person; but because it is He Himself that
is despised, therefore great is the blame.
Thus also Paul persecuted Him, in persecuting them that are His; wherefore
too He said. "Why persecutest thou me?" Thus therefore let us feel, as
bestowing on Christ Himself when we bestow. For indeed His words are more
sure than our sight. When therefore thou seest a poor man, remember His
words, by which He declared, that it is He Himself who is fed. For though
that which appears be not Christ, yet in this man's form Christ Himself
receiveth and beggeth.
But art thou ashamed to hear that Christ beggeth? Rather be ashamed
when thou dost not give to Him begging of thee. For this is shame, this
is vengeance and punishment. Since for Him to beg is of His goodness, wherefore
we ought even to glory therein; but for thee not to give, is of thy inhumanity.
But if thou believe not now, that in passing by a poor man that is a believer,
thou passest by Him, thou wilt believe it then, when He will bring thee
into the midst and say, "Inasmuch as ye did it not to these, ye did it
not to me." But God forbid that we should so learn it, and grant rather
that we may believe now, and bring forth fruit, and hear that most blessed
voice that bringeth us into the kingdom.
But perhaps some one will say, "Thou art every day discoursing to us
of almsgiving and humanity." Neither will I cease to speak of this. For
if ye had attained to it, in the first place, not even so ought I to desist,
for fear of making you the more remiss; yet had ye attained, I might have
relaxed a little; but if ye have not arrived even at the half; say not
these things to me, but to yourselves. For indeed thou doest the same in
blaming me, as if a little child, hearing often of the letter alpha, and
not learning it, were to blame its teacher, because he is continually and
for ever reminding him about it.
For who from these discourses has become more forward in the giving
of alms? Who has cast down his money? Who has given the half of his substance?
Who the third part? No one. How then should it be other than absurd, when
ye do not learn, to require us to desist from teaching? Ye ought to do
the contrary. Though we were minded to desist, ye ought to stop us and
to say, we have not yet learnt these things, and how is it ye have desisted
from reminding us of them? If it befell any one to suffer from his eye,
and I happened to be a physician, and then having covered it up and anointed
it, and having applied other treatment, I had not benefited it much, and
so had desisted; would he not have come to the doors of my surgery and
cried out against me, accusing me of great remissness, for that I had of
myself withdrawn, while the disease remained; and if, on being blamed,
I had said in reply to these things, that I had covered it up, and anointed
it; would he have endured it? By no means, but would immediately hays said;
"And what is the advantage, if I still suffer pain." Reason thus also with
respect to thy soul. But what if after having often fomented a hand that
was lifeless and shrunk, I had not succeeded in mollifying it? Should I
not have heard the same thing? And even now a hand that is shrunk and withered
we bathe, and for this reason, until we can stretch it out perfectly, we
will not desist. Would that you too were to discourse of nothing else,
at home and at market, at table and at night, and as a dream. For if we
were always careful about these things by day, even in our dreams we should
be engaged in them.
What sayest thou? Am I forever speaking of almsgiving? I would wish
myself that there were not great need for me to address this advice to
you, but that I were to speak of the battle against the Jews, and heathens,
and heretics; but when ye are not yet sound, how can any one arm you for
the fight? How should he lead you to the array, yet having wounds and gashes.
Since if indeed I saw you thoroughly sound in health, I should lead you
forth to that battle array, and ye would see by the grace of Christ ten
thousands lying dead, and their heads cast one upon another. In other books
at any rate, many discourses have been spoken by us touching these things,
but not even so are we able thoroughly to triumph in the victory, because
of the remissness of the multitude. For when we conquer them ten thousand
times over in doctrines, they reproach us with the lives of the multitude
of those who join our congregations, their wounds, their diseases in their
How then shall we with confidence show you in the battle array, when
ye rather do us mischief, being straightway wounded by our enemies, and
made a mock of? For one man's hand is diseased, and shrunk so as not to
be able to give away. How then should such a one hold a shield, and thrust
it before him, and avoid being wounded by the jeers of cruelty. With others
the feet halt, as many as go up to the theatres, and to the resorts of
the harlot women. How shall these then be able to stand in the battle,
and not to be wounded with the accusation of wantonness? Another suffers
and is maimed in his eyes, not looking straight, but being full of lasciviousness,
and assailing women's chastity, and overthrowing marriages. How then should
this man be able to look in the face of the enemy, and brandish a spear,
and throw his dart, being goaded on all sides with jeers. We may see also
many suffering with the belly not less than the dropsical, when they are
held in subjection by gluttony and drunkenness. How then shall I be able
to lead forth these drunken men to war? With others the mouth is rotten;
such are the passionate, and revilers, and blasphemers. How then shall
this man ever shout in battle, and achieve anything great and noble, he
too being drunk with another drunkenness, and affording much laughter to
the enemy ?
Therefore each day I go about this camp, dressing your wounds, healing
your sores. But if ye ever rouse yourselves up, and become fit even to
wound others, I will both teach you this art of war, and instruct you how
to handle these weapons, or rather your works themselves will be weapons
to you, and all men will immediately submit, if ye would become merciful,
if forbearing, if mild and patient, if ye would show forth all other virtue.
But if any gainsay, then we will also add the proof of what we can show
on our part, bringing you forward, since now we rather are hindered (at
least as to your part) in this race.
And mark. We say that Christ hath done great things, having made angels
of men; then, when we are called upon to give account, and required to
furnish a proof out of this flock, our mouths are stopped. For I am afraid,
lest in the place of angels, I bring forth swine as from a style, and horses
mad with lust.
I know ye are pained, but not against you all are these things spoken,
but against the guilty, or rather not even against them if they awake,
but for them. Since now indeed all is lost and ruined, and the church is
become nothing better than a stable of oxen, and a fold for asses and camels,
and I go round seeking for a sheep, and am not able to see it. So much
are all kicking, like horses, and any wild asses, and they fill the place
here with much dung, for like this is their discourse. And if indeed one
could see the things spoken at each assemblage, by men, by women, thou
wouldest see their words more unclean than that dung.
Wherefore I entreat you to change this evil custom, that the church
may smell of ointment. But now, while we lay up in it perfumes for the
senses, the uncleanness of the mind we use no great diligence to purge
out, and drive away. What then is the advantage? For we do not so much
disgrace the church by bringing dung into it, as we disgrace it by speaking
such things one to another, about gains, about merchandise, about petty
tradings, about things that are nothing to us, when there ought to be choirs
of angels here, and we ought to make the church a heaven, and to know nothing
else but earnest prayers, and silence with listening.
This then let us do at any rate, from the present time, that we may
both purify our lives, and attain unto the promised blessings, by the grace
and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory world without
Matthew Chapter 27, Verse 62-Matthew Chapter 27, Verse 64
"Now the next day,that followed the day of the preparation, the chief
priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate, saying, Sir, we remember
that that deceiver said, while He was yet alive, After three days I will
rise again. Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the
third day, lest His disciples come and steal Him away, and say to the people,
He is risen from the dead: so the last error should be worse than the first."
Everywhere deceit recoils upon itself, and against its will supports
the truth. And observe. It was necessary for it to be believed that He
died, and that He rose again, and that He was buried, and all these things
are brought to pass by His enemies. See, at any rate, these words bearing
witness to every one of these facts. "We remember," these are the words,
"that that deceiver said, when He was yet alive," (He was therefore now
dead), "After three days I rise again. Command therefore that the sepulchre
be sealed," (He was therefore buried), "lest His disciples come and steal
Him away." So that if the sepulchre be sealed, there will be no unfair
dealing. For there could not be. So then the proof of His resurrection
has become incontrovertible by what ye have put forward. For because it
was sealed, there was no unfair dealing. But if there was no unfair dealing,
and the sepulchre was found empty, it is manifest that He is risen, plainly
and incontrovertibly. Seest thou, how even against their will they contend
for the proof of the truth?
But mark thou, I pray thee, the disciples' love of truth, how they conceal
from us none of the things that are said by His enemies, though they use
opprobrious language. Behold, at any rate, they even call Him a deceiver,
and these men are not silent about that.
But these things show also their savageness (that not even at His death
did they let go their anger), and these men's simple and truthful disposition.
But it were worth while to inquire concerning that point also, where
He said, "After three days I rise again?" For one would not find this thus
distinctly stated, but rather the example of Jonah. So that they understood
His saying, and of their own will dealt unfairly.
What then saith Pilate? "Ye have a watch; make it as sure as ye can.
And they made it sure, sealing the sepulchre, and setting the watch." He
suffers not the soldiers alone to seal, for as having learnt the things
concerning Christ, he was no longer willing to co-operate with them. But
in order to be rid of them, he endures this also, and saith, "Do ye seal
it as ye will, that ye may not have it in your power to blame others."
For if the soldiers only had sealed, they might have said (although the
saying would have been improbable and false, yet nevertheless as in the
rest they cast aside shame, so in this too they might have been able to
say), that the soldiers, having given up the body to be stolen, gave His
disciples opportunity to feign the history concerning His resurrection,
but now having themselves made it sure, they are not able to say so much
Seest thou how they labor for the truth against their will? For they
themselves came to Pilate, themselves asked, themselves sealed, setting
the watch, so as to be accusers, and refuters one of another. And indeed
when should they have stolen Him? on the Sabbath? And how? for it was not
lawful so much as to go out. And even if they transgressed the law, how
should they have dared, who were so timid, to come forth? And how could
they also have been able to persuade the multitude? By saying what? By
doing what? And from what sort of zeal could they have stood in behalf
of the dead? expecting what recompense? what requital? Seeing Him yet alive
and merely seized, they had fled; and after His death were they likely
to speak boldly in His behalf, unless He had risen again? And how should
these things be reasonable? For that they were neither willing nor able
to feign a resurrection, that did not take place, is plain from hence.
He discoursed to them much of a resurrection, and continually said, as
indeed these very men have stated, "After three days I rise again." If
therefore He rose not again, it is quite clear that these men (having been
deceived and made enemies to an entire nation for His sake, and come to
be without home and without city) would have abhorred Him, and would not
have been willing to invest Him with such glory; as having been deceived,
and having fallen into the utmost dangers on His account. For that they
would not even have been able, unless the resurrection had been true, to
feign it, this does not so much as need reasoning.
For in what were they confident? In the shrewdness of their reasonings?
Nay of all men they were the most unlearned. But in the abundance of their
possessions? Nay, they had neither staff nor shoes. But in the distinction
of their race? Nay, they were mean, and of mean ancestors. But in the greatness
of their country? Nay, they were of obscure places. But in their own numbers?
Nay, they were not more than eleven, and they were scattered abroad. But
in their Master's promises? What kind of promises? For if He were not risen
again, neither would those be likely to be trusted by them. And how should
they endure a frantic people. For if the chief of them endured not the
speech of a woman, keeping the door, and if all the rest too, on seeing
Him bound, were scattered abroad, how should they have thought to run to
the ends of the earth, and plant a feigned tale of a resurrection? For
if he stood not a woman's threat, and they not so much as the sight of
bonds, how were they able to stand against kings, and rulers, and nations,
where were swords, and gridirons, and furnaces, and ten thousand deaths
day by day, unless they had the benefit of the power and grace of Him who
rose again? Such miracles and so many were done, and none of these things
did the Jews regard, but crucified Him, who had done them, and were they
likely to believe these men at their mere word about a resurrection? These
things are not, they are not so, but the might of Him, who rose again,
brought them to pass.
2. But mark, I pray thee, their craft, how ridiculous it is. "We remember,"
these are their words, "that that deceiver said, while He was yet alive,
After three days I rise again." Yet if He were a deceiver, and boastfully
uttered falsehood, why are ye afraid and run to and fro, and use so much
diligence? We are afraid, it is replied, lest perchance the disciples steal
Him away, and deceive the multitude. And yet this has been proved to have
no probability at all. Malice, however, is a thing contentious and shameless,
and attempts what is unreasonable.
And they command it to be made sure for three days, as contending for
doctrines, and being minded to prove that before that time also He was
a deceiver, and they extend their malice even to His tomb. For this reason
then He rose sooner, that they might not say that He spake falsely, and
was stolen. For this, His rising sooner, was open to no charge, but to
be later would have been full of suspicion. For indeed if He had not risen
then, when they were sitting there, and watching, but when they had withdrawn
after the three days, they would have had something to say, and to speak
against it, although foolishly. For this reason then He anticipated the
time. For it was meet the resurrection should take place, while they were
sitting by and watching. Therefore also it was fit it should take place
within the three days, since if it had been when they were passed, and
the men had withdrawn, the matter would have been regarded with suspicion.
Wherefore also He allowed them to seal it, as they were minded, and soldiers
sat around it.
And they cared not about doing these things, and working on a Sabbath
day, but they looked to one object only, their own wicked purpose, as though
by that they were to succeed; which was a mark of extreme folly, and of
fear now greatly dismaying them. For they who seized Him, when living,
are afraid of Him when dead. And yet if He had been a mere man, they had
reason to have taken courage. But that they might learn, that when living
also He endured of His own will, what He did endure; behold, both a seal,
a stone, and a watch, and they were not able to hold Him. But there was
one result only, that the burial was published, and the resurrection thereby
proved. For indeed soldiers sat by it, and Jews are on the watch.