We are now entering upon the main prophecy. The whole Revelation
may be divided thus:
The first, second, and third chapters contain the introduction;
The fourth and fifth, the proposition; The sixth, seventh, eighth, and
ninth describe things which are already fulfilled; The tenth to the fourteenth,
things which are now fulfilling; The fifteenth to the nineteenth, things
which will be fulfilled shortly; The twentieth, twenty - first, and twenty
- second, things at a greater distance.
1 After these things - As if he had said, After I had written
these letters from the mouth of the Lord. By the particle and, the several
parts of this prophecy are usually connected: by the expression, after
these things, they are distinguished from each other, Rev 7:9; 19:1. By
that expression, and after these things, they are distinguished, and yet
connected, Rev 7:1; 15:5; 18:1. St. John always saw and heard, and then
immediately wrote down one part after another: and one part is constantly
divided from another by some one of these expressions. I saw - Here begins
the relation of the main vision, which is connected throughout; as it appears
from "the throne, and him that sitteth thereon;" "the Lamb;" (who hitherto
has appeared in the form of a man;) " the four living creatures;" and "
the four and twenty elders," represented from this place to the end. From
this place, it is absolutely necessary to keep in mind the genuine order
of the texts, as it stands in the preceding table. A door opened in heaven
- Several of these openings are successively mentioned. Here a door is
opened; afterward, "the temple of God in heaven," Rev 11:19; 15:5; and,
at last, "heaven" itself, 19:11. By each of these St. John gains a new
and more extended prospect. And the first voice which I had heard - Namely,
that of Christ: afterward, he heard the voices of many others. Said, Come
up hither - Not in body, but in spirit; which was immediately done.
2 And immediately I was in the spirit - Even in an higher degree
than before, Rev 1:10. And, behold, a throne was set in heaven - St. John
is to write "things which shall be;" and, in order thereto, he is here
shown, after an heavenly manner, how whatever "shall be," whether good
or bad, flows out of invisible fountains; and how, after it is done on
the visible theatre of the world and the church, it flows back again into
the invisible world, as its proper and final scope. Here commentators divide:
some proceed theologically; others, historically; whereas the right way
is, to join both together.
The court of heaven is here laid open; and the throne of God is, as
it were, the centre from which everything in the visible world goes forth,
and to which everything returns.
Here, also, the kingdom of Satan is disclosed; and hence we may extract
the most important things out of the most comprehensive and, at the same
time, most secret history of the kingdom of hell and heaven. But herein
we must be content to know only what is expressly revealed in this book.
This describes, not barely what good or evil is successively transacted
on earth, but how each springs from the kingdom of light or darkness, and
continually tends to the source whence it sprung: So that no man can explain
all that is contained therein, from the history of the church militant
And yet the histories of past ages have their use, as this book is properly
prophetical. The more, therefore, we observe the accomplishment of it,
so much the more may we praise God, in his truth, wisdom, justice, and
almighty power, and learn to suit ourselves to the time, according to the
remarkable directions contained in the prophecy. And one sat on the throne
- As a king, governor, and judge. Here is described God, the Almighty,
the Father of heaven, in his majesty, glory, and dominion.
3 And he that sat was in appearance - Shone with a visible lustre,
like that of sparkling precious stones, such as those which were of old
on the high priest's breastplate, and those placed as the foundations of
the new Jerusalem, Rev 21:19,20. If there is anything emblematical in the
colours of these stones, possibly the jasper, which is transparent and
of a glittering white, with an intermixture of beautiful colours, may be
a symbol of God's purity, with various other perfections, which shine in
all his dispensations. The sardine stone, of a blood - red colour, may
be an emblem of his justice, and the vengeance he was about to execute
on his enemies. An emerald, being green, may betoken favour to the good;
a rainbow, the everlasting covenant. See Gen 9:9. And this being round
about the whole breadth of the throne, fixed the distance of those who
stood or sat round it.
4 And round about the throne - In a circle, are four and twenty
thrones, and on the thrones four and twenty elders - The most holy of all
the former ages, Isa 24:23; Heb 12:1; representing the whole body of the
saints. Sitting - In general; but falling down when they worship. Clothed
in white raiment - This and their golden crowns show, that they had already
finished their course and taken their place among the citizens of heaven.
They are never termed souls, and hence it is probable that they had glorified
bodies already. Compare Matt 27:52.
5 And out of the throne go forth lightnings - Which affect the
sight. Voices - Which affect the hearing. Thunderings - Which cause the
whole body to tremble. Weak men account all this terrible; but to the inhabitants
of heaven it is a mere source of joy and pleasure, mixed with reverence
to the Divine Majesty. Even to the saints on earth these convey light and
protection; but to their enemies, terror and destruction.
6 And before the throne is a sea as of glass, like crystal - Wide
and deep, pure and clear, transparent and still. Both the "seven lamps
of fire" and this sea are before the throne; and both may mean "the seven
spirits of God," the Holy Ghost; whose powers and operations are frequently
represented both under the emblem of fire and of water. We read again,
Rev 15:2, of "a sea as of glass," where there is no mention of "the seven
lamps of fire;" but, on the contrary, the sea itself is "mingled with fire."
We read also, Rev 22:1, of "a stream of water of life, clear as crystal."
Now, the sea which is before the throne, and the stream which goes out
of the throne, may both mean the same; namely, the Spirit of God. And in
the midst of the throne - With respect to its height. Round about the throne
- That is, toward the four quarters, east, west, north, and south. Were
four living creatures - Not beasts, no more than birds. These seem to be
taken from the cherubim in the visions of Isaiah and Ezekiel, and in the
holy of holies. They are doubtless some of the principal powers of heaven;
but of what order, it is not easy to determine. It is very probable that
the twenty - four elders may represent the Jewish church: their harps seem
to intimate their having belonged to the ancient tabernacle service, where
they were wont to be used. If so, the living creatures may represent the
Christian church. Their number, also, is symbolical of universality, and
agrees with the dispensation of the gospel, which extended to all nations
under heaven. And the "new song" which they all sing, saying, "Thou hast
redeemed us out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation,"
Rev 5:9, could not possibly suit the Jewish without the Christian church.
The first living creature was like a lion - To signify undaunted courage.
The second, like a calf - Or ox, Ezek 1:10, to signify unwearied patience.
The third, with the face of a man - To signify prudence and compassion.
The fourth, like an eagle - To signify activity and vigour. Full of eyes
- To betoken wisdom and knowledge. Before - To see the face of him that
sitteth on the throne. And behind - To see what is done among the creatures.
7 And the first - Just such were the four cherubim in Ezekiel,
who supported the moving throne of God; whereas each of those that overshadowed
the mercy - seat in the holy of holies had all these four faces: whence
a late great man supposes them to have been emblematic of the Trinity,
and the incarnation of the second Person. A flying eagle - That is, with
8 Each of them hath six wings - As had each of the seraphim in
Isaiah's vision. "Two covered his face," in token of humility and reverence:
"two his feet," perhaps in token of readiness and diligence for executing
divine commissions. Round about and within they are full of eyes. Round
about - To see everything which is farther off from the throne than they
are themselves. And within - On the inner part of the circle which they
make with one another. First, they look from the centre to the circumference,
then from the circumference to the centre. And they rest not - O happy
unrest! Day and night - As we speak on earth. But there is no night in
heaven. And say, Holy, holy, holy - Is the Three - One God.
There are two words in the original, very different from each other;
both which we translate holy. The one means properly merciful; but the
other, which occurs here, implies much more. This holiness is the sum of
all praise, which is given to the almighty Creator, for all that he does
and reveals concerning himself, till the new song brings with it new matter
This word properly signifies separated, both in Hebrew and other languages.
And when God is termed holy, it denotes that excellence which is altogether
peculiar to himself; and the glory flowing from all his attributes conjoined,
shining forth from all his works, and darkening all things besides itself,
whereby he is, and eternally remains, in an incomprehensible manner separate
and at a distance, not only from all that is impure, but likewise from
all that is created. God is separate from all things. He is, and works
from himself, out of himself, in himself, through himself, for himself.
Therefore, he is the first and the last, the only one and the Eternal,
living and happy, endless and unchangeable, almighty, omniscient, wise
and true, just and faithful, gracious and merciful.
Hence it is, that holy and holiness mean the same as God and Godhead:
and as we say of a king, "His Majesty;" so the scripture says of God, "His
Holiness," Heb 12:10. The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God. When God is
spoken of, he is often named "the Holy One:" and as God swears by his name,
so he does also by his holiness; that is, by himself.
This holiness is often styled glory: often his holiness and glory are
celebrated together, Lev 10:3; Isa 6:3. For holiness is covered glory,
and glory is uncovered holiness. The scripture speaks abundantly of the
holiness and glory of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. And hereby
is the mystery of the Holy Trinity eminently confirmed.
That is also termed holy which is consecrated to him, and for that
end separated from other things: and so is that wherein we may be like
God, or united to him.
In the hymn resembling this, recorded by Isaiah, Isa 6:3, is added,
"The whole earth is full of his glory." But this is deferred in the Revelation,
till the glory of the Lord (his enemies being destroyed) fills the earth.
9, 10 And when the living creatures give glory - the elders fall
down - That is, as often as the living creatures give glory, immediately
the elders fall down. The expression implies, that they did so at the same
instant, and that they both did this frequently. The living creatures do
not say directly, "Holy, holy, holy art thou;" but only bend a little,
out of deep reverence, and say, "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord." But the
elders, when they are fallen down, may say, "Worthy art thou, O Lord our