15. "Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's
clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.
16. Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of
thorns, or figs of thistles?
17. Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt
tree bringeth forth evil fruit.
18. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt
tree bring forth good fruit.
19. Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down,
and cast into the fire.
20. Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them."
Pseudo-Chrys.: The Lord had before commanded His Apostles, that they
should not do their alms, prayers, and [p. 281] fastings before men, as
the hypocrites; and that they might know that all these things may be done
in hypocrisy, He speaks saying, "Take heed of false prophets."
Aug., Serm. in Mont., ii, 23: When the Lord had said that there were
few that find the strait gate and narrow way, that heretics, who often
commend themselves because of the smallness of their numbers, might not
here intrude themselves, He straightway subjoins, "Take heed of false prophets."
Chrys.: Having taught that the gate is strait, because there are many
that pervert the way that leads to it, He proceeds, "Take heed of false
prophets." In the which that they might be the more careful, He reminds
them of the things that were done among their fathers, calling them "false
prophets;" for even in that day the like things fell out.
Pseudo-Chrys.: What is written below that "the Law and the Prophets
were until John," [Matt 11:13] is said, because there should be no prophecy
concerning Christ after He was come. Prophets indeed there have been and
are, but not prophesying of Christ, rather interpreting the things which
had been prophesied of Christ by the ancients, that is by the doctors of
the Churches. For no man can unfold prophetic meaning, but the Spirit of
prophecy. The Lord then knowing that there should be false teachers, warns
them of divers heresies, saying, "Take heed of false prophets."
And forasmuch as they would not be manifest Gentiles, but lurk under
the Christian name, He said not 'See ye,' but, "Take heed." For a thing
that is certain is simply seen, or looked upon; but when it is uncertain
it is watched or narrowly considered. Also He says "Take heed," because
it is a sure precaution of security to know him whom you avoid. But his
form of warning, "Take heed," does not imply that the Devil will introduce
heresies against God's will, but by His permission only; but because He
would not choose servants without trial, therefore He sends them temptation;
and because He would not have them perish through ignorance, He therefore
warns them before hand.
Also that no heretical teacher might maintain that He spoke here of
Gentile and Jewish teachers and not of them, He adds, "who come to you
in sheep's clothing." Christians are called sheep, and the sheep's clothing
is a form of Christianity and of feigned religion. And nothing so casts
out [p. 282] all good as hypocrisy; for evil that puts on the semblance
of good, cannot be provided against, because it is unknown. Again, that
the heretic might not allege that He here speaks of the true teachers which
were yet sinners, He adds, "But inwardly they are ravening wolves." But
Catholic teachers should they indeed have been sinners, are spoken of as
servants of the flesh, yet not as ravening wolves, because it is not their
purpose to destroy Christians.
Clearly then it is of heretical teachers that He speaks; for they put
on the guise of Christians, to the end they may tear in pieces the Christian
with the wicked fangs of seduction. Concerning such the Apostle speaks,
"I know that after my departure there will enter among you grievous wolves,
not sparing the flock." [Acts 20:29]
Chrys.: Yet He may seem here to have aimed under the title of "false
prophets," not so much at the heretic, as at those who, while their life
is corrupt, yet wear an outward face of virtuousness; whence it is said,
"By their fruits ye shall know them." For among heretics it is possible
many times to find a good life, but among those I have named never.
Aug., Serm. in Mont., ii, 24: Wherefore it is justly asked, what fruits
then He would have us look to? For many esteem among fruits some things
which pertain to the sheep's clothing, and in this manner are deceived
concerning wolves. For they practise fasting, almsgiving, or praying, which
they display before men, seeking to please those to whom these things seem
These then are not the fruits by which He teaches us to discern them.
Those deeds which are done with good intention, are the proper fleece of
the sheep itself, such as are done with bad intention, or in error, are
nothing else than a clothing of wolves; but the sheep ought not to hate
their own clothing because it is often used to hide wolves.
What then are the fruits by which we may know an evil tree? The Apostle
says, "The works of the flesh are manifest, which are, fornication, uncleanness,
&c." [Gal 5:19] And which are they by which we may know a good tree?
The same Apostle teaches, saying, "The fruits of the Spirit are love, joy,
Pseudo-Chrys.: The fruits of a man are the confession of his faith and
the works of his life; for he who utter according to God the words of humility
and a true confession, is the sheep; but he who against the truth howls
forth blasphemies against [p. 283] God is the wolf.
Jerome: What is here spoken of false prophets we may apply to all whose
dress and speech promise one thing, and their actions exhibit another.
But it is specially to be understood of heretics, who by observing temperance,
chastity, and fasting, surround themselves as it were with a garment of
sanctity, but inasmuch as their hearts within them are poisoned, they deceive
the souls of the more simple brethren.
Aug., non occ.: But from their actions we may conjecture whether this
their outward appearance is put on for display. For when by any temptations
those things are withdrawn or denied them which they had either attained
or sought to attain by this evil, then needs must that it appear whether
they be the wolf in sheep's clothing, or the sheep in his own.
Greg., Mor., xxxi, 14: Also the hypocrite is restrained by peaceful
times of Holy Church, and therefore appears clothed with godliness; but
let any trial of faith ensue, straight the wolf ravenous at heart strips
himself of his sheep's skin, and shews by persecuting how great his rage
against the good.
Chrys.: And the hypocrite is easily discerned; for the way they are
commanded to walk is a hard way, and the hypocrite is loth to toil. And
that you may not say that you are unable to find out them that are such,
He again enforces what He had said by example from men, saying, "Do men
gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?"
Pseudo-Chrys.: The grape had in it a mystery of Christ. As the bunch
sustains many grapes held together by the woody stem, so likewise Christ
holds many believers joined to Him by the wood of the Cross. The fig again
is the Church which binds many faithful by a sweet embrace of charity,
as the fig contains many seeds inclosed in one skin. The fig then has these
significations, namely, love in its sweetness, unity in the close adhesion
of its seeds. In the grape is shewn patience, in that it is cast into the
wine-press - joy, because wine maketh glad the heart of man - purity, because
it is not mixed with water - and sweetness, in that it delighteth. The
thorns and thistles are the heretics. And as a thorn or a thistle has sharp
pricks on every part, so the Devil's servants, on whatsoever side you look
at them, are full of wickedness. Thorns and thistles then of this sort
cannot bear the fruits of the Church. And having instanced in particular
tress, as [p. 284] the fig, the vine, the thorn, and the thistle, He proceeds
to shew that this is universally true, saying, "Thus every good tree bringeth
forth good fruit, but an evil tree bringeth forth evil fruit."
Aug., Serm. in Mont., ii, 25: In this place we must guard against the
error of such [margin note: Manichees] as imagine that the two trees refer
to two different natures; the one of God, the other not. But we affirm
that they derive no countenance from these two tree; as it will be evident
to any who will read the context that He is speaking here of men.
Aug., City of God, book 12, ch. 4: These men of whom we have spoken
are offended with these two natures, not considering them according to
their true usefulness; whereas it is not by our advantage or disadvantage,
but in itself considered, that nature gives glory to her Framer. All natures
then that are, because they are, have their own manner, their own appearance,
and as it were their own harmony [margin note: pacem], and are altogether
Chrys.: But that none should say, An evil tree brings forth indeed evil
fruit, but it brings forth also good, and so it becomes hard to discern,
as it has a two-fold produce; on this account He adds, "A good tree cannot
bring forth evil fruit, neither can an evil tree bring forth good fruit."
Aug., Serm. in Mont., ii, 25: From this speech the Manichees suppose
that neither can a soul that is evil be possibly changed for better, nor
one that is good into worse. As though it had been, A good tree cannot
become bad, nor a bad tree become good; whereas it is thus said, "A good
tree cannot bring forth evil fruit," nor the reverse. The tree is the soul,
that is, the man himself; the fruit is the man's works. An evil man therefore
cannot work good works, nor a good man evil works. Therefore if an evil
man would work good things, let him first become good. But as long as he
continues evil, he cannot bring forth good fruits. Like as it is indeed
possible that what was once snow, should cease to be so; but it cannot
be that snow should be warm; so it is possible that he who has been evil
should be so no longer; but it is impossible that an evil man should do
good. For though he may sometimes be useful, it is not he that does it,
but it comes of Divine Providence super-intending.
Rabanus: And man is denominated a good tree, or a bad, after his will,
as it is good or bad. His fruit is his works, which can neither be good
when the will is evil, [p. 285] nor evil when it is good.
Aug., see Op. Imp. in Jul. v. 40: But as it is manifest that all evil
works proceed from an evil will, as its fruits from an evil tree; so of
this evil will itself whence will you say that it has sprung, except that
the evil will of an angel sprung from an angel, of man from man? And what
were these two before those evils arose in them, but the good work of God,
a good and praiseworthy nature.
See then out of good arises evil; nor was there any thing at all out
of which it might arise but what was good. I mean the evil will itself,
since there was no evil before it, no evil works, which could not come
but from evil will as fruit from an evil tree. Nor can it be said that
it sprung out of good in this way, because it was made good by a good God;
for it was made of nothing, and not of God.
Jerome: We would ask those heretics who affirm that there are two natures
directly opposed to each other, if they admit that a good tree cannot bring
forth evil fruit, how it was possible for Moses, a good tree, to sin as
he did at the water of contradiction? Or for Peter to deny his Lord in
the Passion, saying, "I know not the man?" Or how, on the other hand, could
Moses' father-in-law, an evil tree, inasmuch as he believed not in the
God of Israel, give good counsel?
Chrys.: He had not enjoined them to punish the false prophets, and therefore
shews them the terrors of that punishment that is of God, saying, "Every
tree that bringeth not forth good fruit shall be hewn down, and cast into
In these words He seems to aim also at the Jews, and thus calls to mind
the word of John the Baptist, denouncing punishment against them in the
very same words. For he had thus spoken to the Jews, warning them of the
axe impending, the tree that should be cut down, and the fire that could
not be extinguished.
But if one will examine somewhat closely, here are two punishments,
to be cut down, and to be burned; and he that is burned is also altogether
cut out of the kingdom; which is the harder punishment. Many indeed fear
no more than hell; but I say that the fall of that glory is a far more
bitter punishment, than the pains of hell itself. For what evil great or
small would not a father undergo, that he might see and enjoy a most dear
son? Let us then think the same of that glory; for there is no son so dear
to his father as is the rest of the [p. 286] good, to be deceased and to
be with Christ. The pain of hell is indeed intolerable, yet are ten thousand
hells nothing to falling from that blessed glory, and being held in hate
Gloss., non occ.: From the foregoing similitude He draws the conclusion
to what He had said before, as being now manifest, saying, "Therefore by
their fruits ye shall know them."
21. "Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into
the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is
Jerome: As He had said above that those who have the robe of a good
life are yet not to be received because of the impiety of their doctrines;
so now on the other hand, He forbids us to participate the faith with those
who while they are strong in sound doctrine, destroy it with evil works.
For it behoves the servants of God that both their work should be approved
by their teaching and their teaching by their works.
And therefore He says, "Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord,
enters into the kingdom of heaven."
Chrys., Hom., xxiv. Rom. 2, 17: Wherein He seems to touch the Jews chiefly
who placed every thing in dogmas; as Paul accuses them, "If thou art called
a Jew, and restest in the Law."
Pseudo-Chrys.: Otherwise; Having taught that the false prophets and
the true are to be discerned by their fruits, He now goes on to teach more
plainly what are the fruits by which we are to discern the godly from the
Aug., Serm. in Mont., ii, 24: For even in the very name of Christ we
must be on our guard against heretics, and all that understand amiss and
love this world, that we may not be deceived, and therefore He says, "Not
every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord."
But it may [p. 287] fairly create a difficulty how this is to be reconciled
with that of the Apostle, "No man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by
the Holy Ghost." [1 Cor 12:3] For we cannot say that those who are not
to enter into the kingdom of heaven have the Holy Spirit. But the Apostle
uses the word 'say,' to express the will and understanding of him that
says it. He only properly says a thing, who by the sound of his voice expresses
his will and purpose. But the Lord uses the word in its ordinary sense,
for he seems to say who neither wishes nor understands what he says.
Jerome: For Scripture uses to take words for deeds; according to which
the Apostle declares, "They make confession that they know God, but in
works deny him." [Titus 1:16]
Ambrosiaster Comm. in 1 Cor 12, 3: For all truth by whomsoever uttered
is from the Holy Spirit.
Aug., non occ.: Let us not therefore think that this belongs to those
fruits of which He had spoken above, when one says to our Lord, "Lord,
Lord;" and thence seems to us to be a good tree; the true fruit spoken
of is to do the will of God; whence it follows, "But who doeth the will
of my Father which is in heaven, he shall enter into the kingdom of heaven."
Hilary: For obeying God's will and not calling on His name, shall find
the way to the heavenly kingdom.
Pseudo-Chrys.: And what the will of God is the Lord Himself teaches,
"This is," He says, "the will of him that sent me, that every man that
seeth the Son and believeth on him should have eternal life." [John 6:40]
The word believe has reference both to confession and conduct. He then
who does not confess Christ, or does not walk according to His word, shall
not enter into the kingdom of heaven.
Chrys.: He said not "he that doth" My "will," but "the will of my Father,"
for it was fit so to adapt it in the mean while to their weakness. But
the one secretly implied the other, seeing the will of the Son is no other
than the will of the Father.
Aug., Serm. in Mont., ii, 25: Here it also pertains that we be not deceived
by the name of Christ not only in such as bear the name and do not the
deeds, but yet more by certain works and miracles, such as the Lord wrought
because of the unbelieving, but yet warned us that we should not be deceived
by such to suppose that there was invisible wisdom where was a visible
miracle; wherefore He adds, saying, "Many shall say to me in that day."