PART THREE - LIFE IN CHRIST
SECTION TWO - THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
CHAPTER TWO - "YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF"
ARTICLE 6 - THE SIXTH COMMANDMENT
- You shall not commit adultery.112
You have heard that it was said, "You shall not commit adultery." But
I say to you that every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already
committed adultery with her in his heart.113
I. "MALE AND FEMALE HE CREATED THEM . . ."
2331 "God is love and in himself he lives a mystery of
personal loving communion. Creating the human race in his own image . . ..
God inscribed in the humanity of man and woman the vocation, and
thus the capacity and responsibility, of love and communion."114
"God created man in his own image . . . male and female he created them";115
He blessed them and said, "Be fruitful and multiply";116 "When
God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. Male and female he
created them, and he blessed them and named them Man when they were
2332 Sexuality affects all aspects of the human
person in the unity of his body and soul. It especially concerns
affectivity, the capacity to love and to procreate, and in a more general
way the aptitude for forming bonds of communion with others.
2333 Everyone, man and woman, should acknowledge and
accept his sexual identity. Physical, moral, and spiritual
difference and complementarity are oriented toward the goods
of marriage and the flourishing of family life. The harmony of the couple
and of society depends in part on the way in which the complementarity,
needs, and mutual support between the sexes are lived out.
2334 "In creating men 'male and female,' God gives man
and woman an equal personal dignity."118 "Man is a person, man
and woman equally so, since both were created in the image and likeness of
the personal God."119
2335 Each of the two sexes is an image of the power and
tenderness of God, with equal dignity though in a different way. The
union of man and woman in marriage is a way of imitating in the flesh
the Creator's generosity and fecundity: "Therefore a man leaves his father
and his mother and cleaves to his wife, and they become one flesh."120
All human generations proceed from this union.121
2336 Jesus came to restore creation to the purity of its
origins. In the Sermon on the Mount, he interprets God's plan strictly: "You
have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery.' But I say to
you that every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed
adultery with her in his heart."122 What God has joined together,
let not man put asunder.123
The tradition of the Church has understood the sixth commandment as
encompassing the whole of human sexuality.
II. THE VOCATION TO CHASTITY
2337 Chastity means the successful integration of
sexuality within the person and thus the inner unity of man in his bodily
and spiritual being. Sexuality, in which man's belonging to the bodily and
biological world is expressed, becomes personal and truly human when it is
integrated into the relationship of one person to another, in the complete
and lifelong mutual gift of a man and a woman.
The virtue of chastity therefore involves the integrity of the person and
the integrality of the gift.
The integrity of the person
2338 The chaste person maintains the integrity of the
powers of life and love placed in him. This integrity ensures the unity of
the person; it is opposed to any behavior that would impair it. It tolerates
neither a double life nor duplicity in speech.124
2339 Chastity includes an apprenticeship in
self-mastery which is a training in human freedom. The alternative is
clear: either man governs his passions and finds peace, or he lets himself
be dominated by them and becomes unhappy.125 "Man's dignity
therefore requires him to act out of conscious and free choice, as moved and
drawn in a personal way from within, and not by blind impulses in himself or
by mere external constraint. Man gains such dignity when, ridding himself of
all slavery to the passions, he presses forward to his goal by freely
choosing what is good and, by his diligence and skill, effectively secures
for himself the means suited to this end."126
2340 Whoever wants to remain faithful to his baptismal
promises and resist temptations will want to adopt the means for doing so:
self-knowledge, practice of an ascesis adapted to the situations that
confront him, obedience to God's commandments, exercise of the moral
virtues, and fidelity to prayer. "Indeed it is through chastity that we are
gathered together and led back to the unity from which we were fragmented
2341 The virtue of chastity comes under the cardinal
virtue of temperance, which seeks to permeate the passions and
appetites of the senses with reason.
2342 Self-mastery is a long and exacting work.
One can never consider it acquired once and for all. It presupposes renewed
effort at all stages of life.128 The effort required can be more
intense in certain periods, such as when the personality is being formed
during childhood and adolescence.
2343 Chastity has laws of growth which progress
through stages marked by imperfection and too often by sin. "Man . . . day
by day builds himself up through his many free decisions; and so he knows,
loves, and accomplishes moral good by stages of growth."129
2344 Chastity represents an eminently personal task; it
also involves a cultural effort, for there is "an interdependence
between personal betterment and the improvement of society."130
Chastity presupposes respect for the rights of the person, in particular the
right to receive information and an education that respect the moral and
spiritual dimensions of human life.
2345 Chastity is a moral virtue. It is also a gift from
God, a grace, a fruit of spiritual effort.131 The Holy
Spirit enables one whom the water of Baptism has regenerated to imitate the
purity of Christ.132
The integrality of the gift of self
2346 Charity is the form of all the virtues.
Under its influence, chastity appears as a school of the gift of the person.
Self-mastery is ordered to the gift of self. Chastity leads him who
practices it to become a witness to his neighbor of God's fidelity and
2347 The virtue of chastity blossoms in friendship.
It shows the disciple how to follow and imitate him who has chosen us as his
friends,133 who has given himself totally to us and allows us to
participate in his divine estate. Chastity is a promise of immortality.
Chastity is expressed notably in friendship with one's neighbor.
Whether it develops between persons of the same or opposite sex, friendship
represents a great good for all. It leads to spiritual communion.
The various forms of chastity
2348 All the baptized are called to chastity. The
Christian has "put on Christ,"134 the model for all chastity. All
Christ's faithful are called to lead a chaste life in keeping with their
particular states of life. At the moment of his Baptism, the Christian is
pledged to lead his affective life in chastity.
2349 "People should cultivate [chastity] in the way that
is suited to their state of life. Some profess virginity or consecrated
celibacy which enables them to give themselves to God alone with an
undivided heart in a remarkable manner. Others live in the way prescribed
for all by the moral law, whether they are married or single."135
Married people are called to live conjugal chastity; others practice
chastity in continence:
- There are three forms of the virtue of chastity: the
first is that of spouses, the second that of widows, and the third that
of virgins. We do not praise any one of them to the exclusion of the
others. . . . This is what makes for the richness of the discipline of
2350 Those who are engaged to marry are called
to live chastity in continence. They should see in this time of testing a
discovery of mutual respect, an apprenticeship in fidelity, and the hope of
receiving one another from God. They should reserve for marriage the
expressions of affection that belong to married love. They will help each
other grow in chastity.
Offenses against chastity
2351 Lust is disordered desire for or
inordinate enjoyment of sexual pleasure. Sexual pleasure is morally
disordered when sought for itself, isolated from its procreative and unitive
2352 By masturbation is to be understood the
deliberate stimulation of the genital organs in order to derive sexual
pleasure. "Both the Magisterium of the Church, in the course of a constant
tradition, and the moral sense of the faithful have been in no doubt and
have firmly maintained that masturbation is an intrinsically and gravely
disordered action."137 "The deliberate use of the sexual faculty,
for whatever reason, outside of marriage is essentially contrary to its
purpose." For here sexual pleasure is sought outside of "the sexual
relationship which is demanded by the moral order and in which the total
meaning of mutual self-giving and human procreation in the context of true
love is achieved."138
To form an equitable judgment about the subjects' moral responsibility
and to guide pastoral action, one must take into account the affective
immaturity, force of acquired habit, conditions of anxiety or other
psychological or social factors that lessen, if not even reduce to a
minimum, moral culpability.
2353 Fornication is carnal union between an
unmarried man and an unmarried woman. It is gravely contrary to the dignity
of persons and of human sexuality which is naturally ordered to the good of
spouses and the generation and education of children. Moreover, it is a
grave scandal when there is corruption of the young.
2354 Pornography consists in removing real or
simulated sexual acts from the intimacy of the partners, in order to display
them deliberately to third parties. It offends against chastity because it
perverts the conjugal act, the intimate giving of spouses to each other. It
does grave injury to the dignity of its participants (actors, vendors, the
public), since each one becomes an object of base pleasure and illicit
profit for others. It immerses all who are involved in the illusion of a
fantasy world. It is a grave offense. Civil authorities should prevent the
production and distribution of pornographic materials.
2355 Prostitution does injury to the dignity of
the person who engages in it, reducing the person to an instrument of sexual
pleasure. The one who pays sins gravely against himself: he violates the
chastity to which his Baptism pledged him and defiles his body, the temple
of the Holy Spirit.139 Prostitution is a social scourge. It
usually involves women, but also men, children, and adolescents (The latter
two cases involve the added sin of scandal.). While it is always gravely
sinful to engage in prostitution, the imputability of the offense can be
attenuated by destitution, blackmail, or social pressure.
2356 Rape is the forcible violation of the
sexual intimacy of another person. It does injury to justice and charity.
Rape deeply wounds the respect, freedom, and physical and moral integrity to
which every person has a right. It causes grave damage that can mark the
victim for life. It is always an intrinsically evil act. Graver still is the
rape of children committed by parents (incest) or those responsible for the
education of the children entrusted to them.
Chastity and homosexuality
2357 Homosexuality refers to relations between men or
between women who experience an exclusive or predominant sexual attraction
toward persons of the same sex. It has taken a great variety of forms
through the centuries and in different cultures. Its psychological genesis
remains largely unexplained. Basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which
presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity,140 tradition
has always declared that "homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered."141
They are contrary to the natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift
of life. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual
complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved.
2358 The number of men and women who have deep-seated
homosexual tendencies is not negligible. This inclination, which is
objectively disordered, constitutes for most of them a trial. They must be
accepted with respect, compassion, and sensitivity. Every sign of unjust
discrimination in their regard should be avoided. These persons are called
to fulfill God's will in their lives and, if they are Christians, to unite
to the sacrifice of the Lord's Cross the difficulties they may encounter
from their condition.
2359 Homosexual persons are called to chastity. By the
virtues of self-mastery that teach them inner freedom, at times by the
support of disinterested friendship, by prayer and sacramental grace, they
can and should gradually and resolutely approach Christian perfection.
III. THE LOVE OF HUSBAND AND WIFE
2360 Sexuality is ordered to the conjugal love of man
and woman. In marriage the physical intimacy of the spouses becomes a sign
and pledge of spiritual communion. Marriage bonds between baptized persons
are sanctified by the sacrament.
2361 "Sexuality, by means of which man and woman give
themselves to one another through the acts which are proper and exclusive to
spouses, is not something simply biological, but concerns the innermost
being of the human person as such. It is realized in a truly human way only
if it is an integral part of the love by which a man and woman commit
themselves totally to one another until death."142
- Tobias got out of bed and said to Sarah, "Sister,
get up, and let us pray and implore our Lord that he grant us mercy and
safety." So she got up, and they began to pray and implore that they
might be kept safe. Tobias began by saying, "Blessed are you, O God of
our fathers. . . . You made Adam, and for him you made his wife Eve as a
helper and support. From the two of them the race of mankind has sprung.
You said, 'It is not good that the man should be alone; let us make a
helper for him like himself.' I now am taking this kinswoman of mine,
not because of lust, but with sincerity. Grant that she and I may find
mercy and that we may grow old together." And they both said, "Amen,
Amen." Then they went to sleep for the night.143
2362 "The acts in marriage by which the intimate and
chaste union of the spouses takes place are noble and honorable; the truly
human performance of these acts fosters the self-giving they signify and
enriches the spouses in joy and gratitude."144 Sexuality is a
source of joy and pleasure:
- The Creator himself . . . established that in the
[generative] function, spouses should experience pleasure and enjoyment
of body and spirit. Therefore, the spouses do nothing evil in seeking
this pleasure and enjoyment. They accept what the Creator has intended
for them. At the same time, spouses should know how to keep themselves
within the limits of just moderation.145
2363 The spouses' union achieves the twofold end of
marriage: the good of the spouses themselves and the transmission of life.
These two meanings or values of marriage cannot be separated without
altering the couple's spiritual life and compromising the goods of marriage
and the future of the family.
The conjugal love of man and woman thus stands under the twofold
obligation of fidelity and fecundity.
2364 The married couple forms "the intimate partnership
of life and love established by the Creator and governed by his laws; it is
rooted in the conjugal covenant, that is, in their irrevocable personal
consent."146 Both give themselves definitively and totally to one
another. They are no longer two; from now on they form one flesh. The
covenant they freely contracted imposes on the spouses the obligation to
preserve it as unique and indissoluble.147 "What therefore God
has joined together, let not man put asunder."148
2365 Fidelity expresses constancy in keeping one's given
word. God is faithful. The Sacrament of Matrimony enables man and woman to
enter into Christ's fidelity for his Church. Through conjugal chastity, they
bear witness to this mystery before the world.
- St. John Chrysostom suggests that young husbands
should say to their wives: I have taken you in my arms, and I love you,
and I prefer you to my life itself. For the present life is nothing, and
my most ardent dream is to spend it with you in such a way that we may
be assured of not being separated in the life reserved for us. . . . I
place your love above all things, and nothing would be more bitter or
painful to me than to be of a different mind than you.149
The fecundity of marriage
2366 Fecundity is a gift, an end of marriage,
for conjugal love naturally tends to be fruitful. A child does not come from
outside as something added on to the mutual love of the spouses, but springs
from the very heart of that mutual giving, as its fruit and fulfillment. So
the Church, which is "on the side of life"150 teaches that "it is
necessary that each and every marriage act remain ordered per se to the
procreation of human life."151 "This particular doctrine,
expounded on numerous occasions by the Magisterium, is based on the
inseparable connection, established by God, which man on his own initiative
may not break, between the unitive significance and the procreative
significance which are both inherent to the marriage act."152
2367 Called to give life, spouses share in the creative
power and fatherhood of God.153 "Married couples should regard it
as their proper mission to transmit human life and to educate their
children; they should realize that they are thereby cooperating with
the love of God the Creator and are, in a certain sense, its
interpreters. They will fulfill this duty with a sense of human and
2368 A particular aspect of this responsibility concerns
the regulation of procreation. For just reasons, spouses may wish
to space the births of their children. It is their duty to make certain that
their desire is not motivated by selfishness but is in conformity with the
generosity appropriate to responsible parenthood. Moreover, they should
conform their behavior to the objective criteria of morality:
- When it is a question of harmonizing married love
with the responsible transmission of life, the morality of the behavior
does not depend on sincere intention and evaluation of motives alone;
but it must be determined by objective criteria, criteria drawn from the
nature of the person and his acts criteria that respect the total
meaning of mutual self-giving and human procreation in the context of
true love; this is possible only if the virtue of married chastity is
practiced with sincerity of heart.155
2369 "By safeguarding both these essential aspects, the
unitive and the procreative, the conjugal act preserves in its fullness the
sense of true mutual love and its orientation toward man's exalted vocation
2370 Periodic continence, that is, the methods of birth
regulation based on self-observation and the use of infertile periods, is in
conformity with the objective criteria of morality.157 These
methods respect the bodies of the spouses, encourage tenderness between
them, and favor the education of an authentic freedom. In contrast, "every
action which, whether in anticipation of the conjugal act, or in its
accomplishment, or in the development of its natural consequences, proposes,
whether as an end or as a means, to render procreation impossible" is
- Thus the innate language that expresses the total
reciprocal self-giving of husband and wife is overlaid, through
contraception, by an objectively contradictory language, namely, that of
not giving oneself totally to the other. This leads not only to a
positive refusal to be open to life but also to a falsification of the
inner truth of conjugal love, which is called upon to give itself in
personal totality. . . . The difference, both anthropological and moral,
between contraception and recourse to the rhythm of the cycle . . .
involves in the final analysis two irreconcilable concepts of the human
person and of human sexuality.159
2371 "Let all be convinced that human life and the duty
of transmitting it are not limited by the horizons of this life only: their
true evaluation and full significance can be understood only in reference to
man's eternal destiny."160
2372 The state has a responsibility for
its citizens' well-being. In this capacity it is legitimate for it to
intervene to orient the demography of the population. This can be done by
means of objective and respectful information, but certainly not by
authoritarian, coercive measures. The state may not legitimately usurp the
initiative of spouses, who have the primary responsibility for the
procreation and education of their children.161 In this area, it
is not authorized to employ means contrary to the moral law.
The gift of a child
2373 Sacred Scripture and the Church's traditional
practice see in large families a sign of God's blessing and the
2374 Couples who discover that they are sterile suffer
greatly. "What will you give me," asks Abraham of God, "for I continue
childless?"163 And Rachel cries to her husband Jacob, "Give me
children, or I shall die!"164
2375 Research aimed at reducing human sterility is to be
encouraged, on condition that it is placed "at the service of the human
person, of his inalienable rights, and his true and integral good according
to the design and will of God."165
2376 Techniques that entail the
dissociation of husband and wife, by the intrusion of a person other than
the couple (donation of sperm or ovum, surrogate uterus), are gravely
immoral. These techniques (heterologous artificial insemination and
fertilization) infringe the child's right to be born of a father and mother
known to him and bound to each other by marriage. They betray the spouses'
"right to become a father and a mother only through each other."166
2377 Techniques involving only the married couple
(homologous artificial insemination and fertilization) are perhaps less
reprehensible, yet remain morally unacceptable. They dissociate the sexual
act from the procreative act. The act which brings the child into existence
is no longer an act by which two persons give themselves to one another, but
one that "entrusts the life and identity of the embryo into the power of
doctors and biologists and establishes the domination of technology over the
origin and destiny of the human person. Such a relationship of domination is
in itself contrary to the dignity and equality that must be common to
parents and children."167 "Under the moral aspect procreation is
deprived of its proper perfection when it is not willed as the fruit of the
conjugal act, that is to say, of the specific act of the spouses' union . .
. . Only respect for the link between the meanings of the conjugal act and
respect for the unity of the human being make possible procreation in
conformity with the dignity of the person."168
2378 A child is not something owed to one, but
is a gift. The "supreme gift of marriage" is a human person. A
child may not be considered a piece of property, an idea to which an alleged
"right to a child" would lead. In this area, only the child possesses
genuine rights: the right "to be the fruit of the specific act of the
conjugal love of his parents," and "the right to be respected as a person
from the moment of his conception."169
2379 The Gospel shows that physical sterility is not an
absolute evil. Spouses who still suffer from infertility after exhausting
legitimate medical procedures should unite themselves with the Lord's Cross,
the source of all spiritual fecundity. They can give expression to their
generosity by adopting abandoned children or performing demanding services
IV. OFFENSES AGAINST THE DIGNITY OF MARRIAGE
2380 Adultery refers to marital infidelity.
When two partners, of whom at least one is married to another party, have
sexual relations - even transient ones - they commit adultery. Christ
condemns even adultery of mere desire.170 The sixth commandment
and the New Testament forbid adultery absolutely.171 The prophets
denounce the gravity of adultery; they see it as an image of the sin of
2381 Adultery is an injustice. He who commits adultery
fails in his commitment. He does injury to the sign of the covenant which
the marriage bond is, transgresses the rights of the other spouse, and
undermines the institution of marriage by breaking the contract on which it
is based. He compromises the good of human generation and the welfare of
children who need their parents' stable union.
2382 The Lord Jesus insisted on the original intention
of the Creator who willed that marriage be indissoluble.173 He
abrogates the accommodations that had slipped into the old Law.174
Between the baptized, "a ratified and consummated marriage cannot be
dissolved by any human power or for any reason other than death."175
2383 The separation of spouses while
maintaining the marriage bond can be legitimate in certain cases provided
for by canon law.176
If civil divorce remains the only possible way of
ensuring certain legal rights, the care of the children, or the protection
of inheritance, it can be tolerated and does not constitute a moral offense.
2384 Divorce is a grave offense against the
natural law. It claims to break the contract, to which the spouses freely
consented, to live with each other till death. Divorce does injury to the
covenant of salvation, of which sacramental marriage is the sign.
Contracting a new union, even if it is recognized by civil law, adds to the
gravity of the rupture: the remarried spouse is then in a situation of
public and permanent adultery:
- If a husband, separated from his wife, approaches
another woman, he is an adulterer because he makes that woman commit
adultery, and the woman who lives with him is an adulteress, because she
has drawn another's husband to herself.177
2385 Divorce is immoral also because it introduces
disorder into the family and into society. This disorder brings grave harm
to the deserted spouse, to children traumatized by the separation of their
parents and often torn between them, and because of its contagious effect
which makes it truly a plague on society.
2386 It can happen that one of the spouses is the
innocent victim of a divorce decreed by civil law; this spouse therefore has
not contravened the moral law. There is a considerable difference between a
spouse who has sincerely tried to be faithful to the sacrament of marriage
and is unjustly abandoned, and one who through his own grave fault destroys
a canonically valid marriage.178
Other offenses against the dignity of marriage
2387 The predicament of a man who, desiring to convert
to the Gospel, is obliged to repudiate one or more wives with whom he has
shared years of conjugal life, is understandable. However polygamy
is not in accord with the moral law." [Conjugal] communion is radically
contradicted by polygamy; this, in fact, directly negates the plan of God
which was revealed from the beginning, because it is contrary to the equal
personal dignity of men and women who in matrimony give themselves with a
love that is total and therefore unique and exclusive."179 The
Christian who has previously lived in polygamy has a grave duty in justice
to honor the obligations contracted in regard to his former wives and his
2388 Incest designates intimate relations
between relatives or in-laws within a degree that prohibits marriage between
them.180 St. Paul stigmatizes this especially grave offense: "It
is actually reported that there is immorality among you . . . for a man is
living with his father's wife. . . . In the name of the Lord Jesus . . . you
are to deliver this man to Satan for the destruction of the flesh. . . . "181
Incest corrupts family relationships and marks a regression toward animality.
2389 Connected to incest is any sexual abuse perpetrated
by adults on children or adolescents entrusted to their care. The offense is
compounded by the scandalous harm done to the physical and moral integrity
of the young, who will remain scarred by it all their lives; and the
violation of responsibility for their upbringing.
2390 In a so-called free union, a man and a
woman refuse to give juridical and public form to a liaison involving sexual
The expression "free union" is fallacious: what can
"union" mean when the partners make no commitment to one another, each
exhibiting a lack of trust in the other, in himself, or in the future?
The expression covers a number of different situations: concubinage,
rejection of marriage as such, or inability to make long-term commitments.182
All these situations offend against the dignity of marriage; they destroy
the very idea of the family; they weaken the sense of fidelity. They are
contrary to the moral law. The sexual act must take place exclusively within
marriage. Outside of marriage it always constitutes a grave sin and excludes
one from sacramental communion.
2391 Some today claim a "right to a trial marriage"
where there is an intention of getting married later. However firm the
purpose of those who engage in premature sexual relations may be, "the fact
is that such liaisons can scarcely ensure mutual sincerity and fidelity in a
relationship between a man and a woman, nor, especially, can they protect it
from inconstancy of desires or whim."183 Carnal union is morally
legitimate only when a definitive community of life between a man and woman
has been established. Human love does not tolerate "trial marriages." It
demands a total and definitive gift of persons to one another.184
2392 "Love is the fundamental and innate vocation of
every human being" (FC 11).
2393 By creating the human being man and woman, God
gives personal dignity equally to the one and the other. Each of them, man
and woman, should acknowledge and accept his sexual identity.
2394 Christ is the model of chastity. Every baptized
person is called to lead a chaste life, each according to his particular
state of life.
2395 Chastity means the integration of sexuality within
the person. It includes an apprenticeship in self-mastery.
2396 Among the sins gravely contrary to chastity are
masturbation, fornication, pornography, and homosexual practices.
2397 The covenant which spouses have freely entered into
entails faithful love. It imposes on them the obligation to keep their
2398 Fecundity is a good, a gift and an end of marriage.
By giving life, spouses participate in God's fatherhood.
2399 The regulation of births represents one of the
aspects of responsible fatherhood and motherhood. Legitimate intentions on
the part of the spouses do not justify recourse to morally unacceptable
means (for example, direct sterilization or contraception).
2400 Adultery, divorce, polygamy, and free union are
grave offenses against the dignity of marriage.
112 EX 20:14; Deut 5:18.
113 Mt 5:27-28.
114 FC 11.
115 Gen 1:27.
116 Gen 1:28.
117 Gen 5:1-2.
118 FC 22; Cf. GS 49 # 2.
119 MD 6.
120 Gen 2:24.
121 Cf. Gen 4:1-2, 25-26; 5:1.
122 Mt 5:27-28.
123 Cf. Mt 19:6.
124 Cf. Mt 5:37.
125 Cf. Sir 1:22.
126 GS 17.
127 St. Augustine, Conf. 10, 29, 40: PL 32, 796.
128 Cf. Titus 2:1-6.
129 FC 34.
130 GS 25 # 1.
131 Cf. Gal 5:22.
132 Cf. 1 Jn 3:3.
133 Cf. Jn 15:15.
134 Gal 3:27.
135 CDF, Persona humana 11.
136 St. Ambrose, De viduis 4, 23: PL 16, 255A.
137 CDF, Persona humana 9.
138 CDF, Persona humana 9.
139 Cf. 1 Cor 6:15-20.
140 Cf. Gen 191-29; Rom 124-27; 1 Cor 6:10; 1 Tim 1:10.
141 CDF, Persona humana 8.
142 FC 11.
143 Tob 8:4-9.
144 GS 49 # 2.
145 Pius XII, Discourse, October 29,1951.
146 GS 48 # 1.
147 Cf. CIC, can. 1056.
148 Mk 109; cf. Mt 19:1-12; 1 Cor 7: 10-11.
149 St. John Chrysostom, Hom. in Eph. 20, 8: PG 62, 146-147.
150 FC 30.
151 HV 11.
152 HV 12; cf. Pius XI, encyclical, Casti connubii.
153 Cf. Eph 3:14; Mt 23:9.
154 GS 50 # 2.
155 GS 51 # 3.
156 Cf. HV 12.
157 HV 16.
158 HV 14.
159 FC 32.
160 GS 51 # 4.
161 Cf. HV 23; PP 37.
162 Cf. GS 50 # 2.
163 Gen 15:2.
164 Gen 30:1.
165 CDF, Donum vitae intro., 2.
166 CDF, Donum vitae II, 1.
167 CDF, Donum vitae II, 5.
168 CDF, Donum vitae II, 4.
169 CDF, Donum vitae II, 8.
170 Cf. Mt 5:27-28.
171 Cf. Mt 5:32; 19:6; Mk 10:11; 1 Cor 6:9-10.
172 Cf. Hos 2:7; Jer 5:7; 13:27.
173 Cf. Mt 5:31-32; 19:3-9; Mk 10 9; Lk 16:18; 1 Cor 7:10-ll.
174 Cf. Mt 19:7-9.
175 CIC, can. 1141.
176 Cf. CIC, cann. 1151-1155.
177 St. Basil, Moralia 73, 1: PG 31, 849-852.
178 Cf. FC 84.
179 FC 19; cf. GS 47 # 2.
180 Cf. Lev 18:7-20.
181 1 Cor 5:1, 4-5.
182 Cf. FC 81.
183 CDF, Persona humana 7.
184 Cf. FC 80.