16. This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfill
the lust of the flesh.
16. Dico autem: Spiritu ambulate; et concupiscentiam carnis non
17. For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against
the flesh:and these are contrary the one to the other; so that ye cannot
do the things that ye would.
17. Nam care concupiscit adversus Spiritum; Spiritus antem adversus
carnem; haec mutuo inter se adversantur; ut non, qnaecunqne volueritis,
18. But if ye be led by the Spirit, ye are not under the law.
18. Quod si Spiritu ducimini, non estis sub Lege.
16. This I say then. Now follows the remedy. The ruin of the
church is no light evil, and whatever threatens it must be opposed with
the most determined resistance. But how is this to be accomplished? By
not permitting the flesh to rule in us, and by yielding ourselves to the
direction of the Spirit of God. The Galatians are indirectly told, that
they are carnal, destitute of the Spirit of God, and that the life which
they lead is unworthy of Christians; for whence did their violent conduct
towards each other proceed, but from their being guided by the lust of
the flesh? This, he tells them, is an evidence that they do not walk according
to the Spirit.
Ye shall not fulfill. We ought to mark the word fulfill; by which
he means, that, though the sons of God, so long as they groan under the
burden of the flesh, are liable to commit sin, they are not its subjects
or slaves, but make habitual opposition to its power. The spiritual man
may be frequently assaulted by the lusts of the flesh, but fulfill them,
— he does not permit them to reign over him. — On this subject, it will
be proper to consult the eighth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans.
17. For the flesh lusteth. The spiritual life maintained without
a struggle. We are here informed of the nature of the difficulty, which
arises from our natural inclinations being opposed to the Spirit. The word
flesh, as we had occasion to observe, in expounding the Epistle to the
Romans, denotes the nature of man; for the limited application of it, which
the sophists make to the lower senses, as they are called, is refuted by
various passages; and the contrast between the two words puts an end to
all doubt. The Spirit denotes the renewed nature, or the grace of regeneration;
and what else does the flesh mean, but “the old man?” (Romans 6:6 Ephesians
4:22 Colossians 3:9.) Disobedience and rebellion against the Spirit of
God pervade the whole nature of man. If we would obey the Spirit, we must
labor, and fight, and apply our utmost energy; and we must begin with self-denial.
The compliment paid by our Lord to the natural inclinations of men, amounts
to this, — that there is no greater agreement between them and righteousness,
than between fire and water. Where, then, shall we find a drop of goodness
in man’s free will? unless we pronounce that to be good which is contrary
to the Spirit of God;
“because the carnal mind is enmity against God, for it is not subject
to the law of God, neither indeed can be.”
All the thoughts of the flesh are acts of enmity against God.
So that ye cannot do the things that ye would. This refers, unquestionably,
to the regenerate. Carnal men have no battle with depraved lusts, no proper
desire to attain to the righteousness of God. Paul is addressing believers.
The things that ye would must mean, not our natural inclinations, but the
holy affections which God bestows upon us by his grace. Paul therefore
declares, that believers, so long as they are in this life, whatever may
be the earnestness of their endeavors, do not obtain such a measure of
success as to serve God in a perfect manner. The highest result does not
correspond to their wishes and desires. I must again refer the reader,
for a more extended view of my sentiments on this subject, to the Exposition
of the Epistle to the Romans, (See Calvin on Romans 7:15.)
18. But if ye be led by the Spirit. In the way of the Lord believers
are apt to stumble. But let them not be discouraged, because they are unable
to satisfy the demands of the law. Let them listen to the consolatory declaration
of the apostle, which is also found in other parts of his writings, (Romans
6:14,) ye are not under ths law. Hence it follows, that the performance
of their duties is not rejected on account of their present defects, but
is accepted in the sight of God, as if it had been in every respect perfect
and complete. Paul is still pursuing the controversy about freedom. The
Spirit is elsewhere (Romans 8:15) denominated by him, “the Spirit of adoption;”
and when the Spirit makes men free, he emancipates them from the yoke of
the law. As if he had said, “Is it your desire instantly to terminate the
controversies in which you are now engaged? Walk according to the Spirit.
You will then be free from the dominion of the law, which will act only
in the capacity of a kind adviser, and will no longer lay a restraint upon
your consciences.” Besides, when the condemnation of the law is removed,
freedom from ceremonies follows as a necessary consequence; for ceremonies
mark the condition of a slave.
19. Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery,
fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,
19. Manifesta vero sunt opera carnis, quae sunt adulterium, scortatio,
20. Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife,
20. Idololatria, veneficium, inimicitiae, contentio, aemulationes,
irae, concertationes, seditiones, haereses,
21. Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of
the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that
they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.
21. Invidiae, homicidia, ebrietates, comissationes, et his similia;
Deuteronomy quibus praedico vobis, quemadmodum et praedixi, quod qui talia
agunt regnum Dei haereditate non possidebunt.
19. Now the works of the flesh are manifest. To obey the spirit
and to oppose the flesh, are two great objects which have been set before
Christians, and for the attainment of which they have been urged to make
the most strenuous exertions. In accordance with these views, he now draws
a picture both of the flesh and of the spirit. If men knew themselves,
they would not need this inspired declaration, for they are nothing but
flesh; but such is the hypocrisy belonging to our natural state, we never
perceive our depravity till the tree has been fully made known by its fruits.
(Matthew 7:16; Luke 6:44.)
The apostle therefore now points out to us those sins against which
we must fight, in order that we may not live according to the flesh. He
does not indeed enumerate them all, and so he himself states at the conclusion
of the list; but from those brought forward, the character of the remainder
may be easily ascertained. Adultery and fornication are placed first, and
next follows uncleanness, which extends to every species of unchastity.
Lasciviousness appears to be a subsidiary term, for the Greek word aselgeia,
which is thus translated, is applied to those who lead wanton and dissolute
lives. These four denote sins forbidden by the seventh commandment. The
next mentioned is idolatry, which is here employed as a general term for
services grossly superstitious and openly practiced.
Seven classes which immediately follow, are closely allied, and other
two are afterwards added. Anger and hatred differ chiefly in this, that
anger is short, and hatred is lasting. Emulations and envyings are the
occasions of hatred; and the following distinction between them is stated
by Aristotle, in his second book on Rhetoric: — He who emulates is grieved
that another should excel him, not because the virtue or worth of that
person, in itself considered, gives him uneasiness, but because he would
wish to be superior. The envious man has no desire to excel, but is grieved
at the excellence of other men. None, therefore, he tells us, but low and
mean persons indulge in envy, while emulation dwells in lofty and heroic
minds. Paul declares both to be diseases of the flesh. From anger and hatred
arise variance, strife, seditions; and he even traces the consequences
so far as to mention murders and witchcraft. By revellings, he means a
dissolute life, and every kind of intemperance in the gratification of
the palate. It deserves notice, that heresies are enumerated among the
works of the flesh; for it shows clearly that the word flesh is not confined,
as the sophists imagine, to sensuality. What produces heresies but ambition,
which deals not with the lower senses, but with the highest faculties of
the mind? He says that these works are manifest, so that no man may think
that he will gain anything by evading the question; for what avails it
to deny that the flesh reigns in us, if the fruit betrays the quality of
21. Of which I tell you before. By this awful threatening he
intended not only to alarm the Galatians, but likewise to glance indirectly
at the false apostles, who had laid aside the far more valuable instruction,
and spent their time in disputing about ceremonies. He instructs us, by
his example, to press those exhortations and threatenings, agreeably to
the words of the prophet,
“Cry aloud, spare not; proclaim to my people their sins.”
What can be conceived more dreadful than that men should walk after
the flesh, and shut themselves out from the kingdom of God? Who will dare
to treat lightly the “abominable things which God hates?” (Jeremiah 44:4.)
But in this way, we shall be told, all are cut off from the hope of
salvation; for who is there that is not chargeable with some of those sins?
I reply, Paul does not threaten that all who have sinned, but that all
who remain impenitent, shall be excluded from the kingdom of God. The saints
themselves often fall into grievous sins, but they return to the path of
righteousness, “that which they do they allow not,” (Romans 7:15,) and
therefore they are not included in this catalogue. All threatenings of
the judgments of God call us to repentance. They are accompanied by a promise
that those who repent will obtain forgiveness; but if we continue obstinate,
they remain as a testimony from heaven against us.
They who do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God. The word
klhronomei~n signifies to possess by hereditary right; for by no right
but that of adoption, as we have seen in other passages, do we obtain eternal
22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering,
gentleness, goodness, faith,
22. Fructus vero Spiritus est charitas, gaudium, pax, tolerantia,
comitas, benignitas, fides,
23. Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.
23. Mansuetudo, temperantia: adversus ejusmodi non est Lex.
24. And they that are Christ’s have crucified the flesh, with the
affections and lusts.
24. Qui autem Christi sunt carnem crucifixerunt cum affectibus et
22. But the fruit of the Spirit. In the former part of the description
he condemned the whole nature of man as producing nothing but evil and
worthless fruits. He now informs us that all virtues, all proper and well
regulated affections, proceed from the Spirit, that is, from the grace
of God, and the renewed nature which we derive from Christ. As if he had
said, “Nothing but what is evil comes from man; nothing good comes but
from the Holy Spirit.” There have often appeared in unrenewed men remarkable
instances of gentleness, integrity, temperance, and generosity; but it
is certain that all were but specious disguises. Curius and Fabrieius were
distinguished for courage, Cato for temperance, Scipio for kindness and
generosity, Fabius for patience; but it was only in the sight of men, and
as members of civil society, that they were so distinguished. In the sight
of God nothing is pure but what proceeds from the fountain of all purity.
Joy does not here, I think, denote that “joy in the Holy Ghost” (Romans
14:17,) of which he speaks elsewhere, but that cheerful behavior towards
our fellow-men which is the opposite of moroseness. Faith means truth,
and is contrasted with cunning, deceit, and falsehood, as peace is with
quarrels and contentions. Long-suffering is gentleness of mind, which disposes
us to take everything in good part, and not to be easily offended. The
other terms require no explanation, for the dispositions of the mind must
be learned from the outward conduct.
But if spiritual men are known by their works, what judgment, it will
be asked, shall we form of wicked men and idolaters, who exhibited an illustrious
resemblance of all the virtues? for it is evident from their works that
they were spiritual. I reply, as all the works of the flesh do not appear
openly in a carnal man, but his carnaltry is discovered by one or another
vice, so a single virtue will not entitle us to conclude that a man is
spiritual. Sometimes it will be made evident, by other vices, that sin
reigns in him; and this observation may be easily applied to all the cases
which I have enumerated.
23. Against such there is no law. Some understand these words
as meaning simply that the law is not directed against good works, “from
evil manners have sprung good laws.” But Paul’s real meaning is deeper
and less obvious; namely, that, where the Spirit reigns, the law has no
longer any dominion. By moulding our hearts to his own righteousness, the
Lord delivers us from the severity of the law, so that our intercourse
with himself is not regulated by its covenant, nor our consciences bound
by its sentence of condemnation. Yet the law continues to teach and exhort,
and thus performs its own office; but our subjection to it is withdrawn
by the Spirit of adoption. He thus ridicules the false apostles, who, while
they enforced subjection to the law, were not less eager to release themselves
from its yoke. The only way, he tells us, in which this is accomplished,
is, when the Spirit of God obtains dominion, from which we are led to conclude
that they had no proper regard to spiritual righteousness.
24. And they that are Christ’s. He adds this, in order to show
that all Christians have renounced the flesh, and therefore enjoy freedom.
While he makes this statement, the apostle reminds the Galatians what true
Christianity is, so far as relates to the life, and thus guards them against
a false profession of Christianity. The word crucified is employed to point
out that the mortification of the flesh is the effect of the cross of Christ.
This work does not belong to man. By the grace of Christ
“we have been planted together in the likeness of his death” (Romans
that we no longer might live unto ourselves. If we are buried with Christ,
by true self-denial, and by the destruction of the old man, we shall then
enjoy the privilege of the sons of God. The flesh is not yet indeed entirely
destroyed; but it has no right to exercise dominion, and ought to yield
to the Spirit. The flesh and its lusts are a figure of speech of exactly
the same import with the tree and its fruits. The flesh itself is the depravity
of corrupt nature, from which all evil actions proceed. (Matthew 15:19;
Mark 7:21.) Hence it follows, that the members of Christ have cause to
complain, if they are still held to be in bondage to the law, from which
all who have been regenerated by his Spirit are set free.