On the words of the gospel, Luke vii. 2, etc.; On the three dead
persons whom the Lord raised.
1. The miracles of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ make indeed an
impression on all who hear of, and believe them; but on different men in
different ways. For some amazed at His miracles done on the bodies of men, have
no knowledge to discern the greater; whereas some admire the more ample
fulfilment in the souls of men at the present time of those things which they
hear of as having been wrought on their bodies. The Lord Himself saith, "For as
the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them; even so the Son quickeneth
whom He will."1 Not of course that the Son "quickeneth" some, the Father others;
but the Father and the Son "quicken" the same; for the Father doeth all things
by the Son. Let no one then who is a Christian doubt, that even at the present
time the dead are raised. Now all men have eyes, wherewith they can see the dead
rise again in such sort, as the son of that widow rose, of whom we have just
read out of the Gospel;2 but those eyes wherewith men see the dead in heart rise
again, all men have not, save those who have risen already in heart themselves.
It is a greater miracle to raise again one who is to live for ever, than to
raise one who must die again.
2. The widowed mother rejoiced at the raising again of that young man; of men
raised again in spirit day by day does Mother Church rejoice. He indeed was dead
in the body but they in soul His visible death was bewailed visibly; their death
invisible was neither enquired into nor perceived. He sought them out who had
known them to be dead; He Alone knew them to be dead, who was able to make them
alive. For if the Lord had not come to raise the dead, the Apostle would not
have said, "Rise, thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall
give thee light."3 You hear of one asleep in the words, "Rise, thou that
sleepest;" but understand it of one dead when you hear, "And arise from the
dead." Thus they who are even dead in the body4 are often said to be asleep. And
certainly they all are but asleep, in respect of Him who is able to awaken them.
For in respect of thee, a dead man is dead indeed, seeing he will not awake,
beat or prick or tear him as thou wilt. But in respect of Christ, he was but
asleep to whom it was said, "Arise,"5 and he arose forthwith. No one can as
easily awaken another in bed, as Christ can in the tomb.
3. Now we find that three dead persons were raised by the Lord "visibly,"
thousands "invisibly." Nay, who knows even how many dead He raised visibly? For
all the things that He did are not written. John tells us this, "Many other
things Jesus did, the which if they should be written, I suppose that the whole
world could not contain the books."6 So then there were without doubt many
others raised: but it is not without a meaning that the three are expressly
recorded. For our Lord Jesus Christ would that those things which He did on the
body should be also spiritually understood. For He did not merely do miracles
for the miracles' sake; but in order that the things which He did should inspire
wonder in those who saw them, and convey truth to them who understand. As he who
sees letters in an excellently written manuscript, and knows not how to read,
praises indeed the transcriber's7 hand, and admires the beauty of the
characters;8 but what those characters mean or signify he does not know; and by
the sight of his eyes he is a praiser of the work, but in his mind has no
comprehension of it; whereas another man both praises the work, and is capable
of understanding it; such an one, I mean, who is not only able to see what is
common to all, but who can read also; which he who has never learned cannot. So
they who saw Christ's miracles, and understood not what they meant, and what
they in a manner conveyed to those who had understanding, wondered only at the
miracles themselves; whereas others both wondered at the miracles, and attained
to the meaning of them. Such ought we to be in the school of Christ. For he who
says that Christ only worked miracles, for the miracles' sake, may say too that
He was ignorant that it was not the thee for fruit, when He sought figs upon the
figtree.9 For it was not the time for that fruit, as the Evangelist testifies;
and yet being hungry He sought for fruit upon the tree. Did not Christ know,
what any peasant knew? What the dresser of the tree knew, did not the tree's
Creator know? So then when being hungry He sought fruit on the tree, He
signified that He was hungry, and seeking after something else than this; and He
found that tree without fruit, but full of leaves, and He cursed it, and it
withered away. What had the tree done in not bearing fruit? What fault of the
tree was its fruitlessness? No; but there are those who through their own will
are not able to yield fruit. Andbarrenness is "their" fault, whose fruitfulness
is their will. The Jews then who had the words of the Law, and had not the
deeds, were full of leaves, and bare no fruit. This have I said to persuade you,
that our Lord Jesus Christ performed miracles with this view, that by those
miracles He might signify something further, that besides that they were
wonderful and great, and divine in themselves, we might learn also something
4. Let us then see what He would have us learn in those three dead persons
whom He raised. He raised again the dead daughter of the ruler of the synagogue,
for whom when she was sick petition was made to Him, that He would deliver her
from her sickness. And as He is going, it is announced that she is dead; and as
though He would now be only wearying Himself in vain, word was brought to her
father, "Thy daughter is dead, why weariest thou the Master any further?"10 But
He went on, and said to the father of the damsel, "Be not afraid, only
believe."11 He comes to the house, and finds the customary funeral obsequies
already prepared, and He says to them, "Weep not, for the damsel is not dead,
but sleepeth."12 He spake the truth; she was asleep; asleep, that is, in respect
of Him, by whom she could be awakened. So awakening her, He restored her alive
to her parents. So again He awakened that young man, the widow's son,13 by whose
case I have been now reminded to speak with you, Beloved, on this subject, as He
Himself shall vouchsafe to give me power. Ye have just heard how he was
awakened. The Lord "came nigh to the city; and behold there was a dead man being
carried out" already beyond the gate. Moved with compassion, for that the
mother, a widow and bereaved of her only son, was weeping, He did what ye have
heard, saying, "Young man, I say unto thee, Arise. He that was dead arose, and
began to speak, and He restored him to his mother."14 He awakened Lazarus
likewise from the tomb. And in that case when the disciples with whom He was
speaking knew that he was sick, He said (now "Jesus loved him"), "Our friend
Lazarus sleepeth." They thinking of the sick man's healthful sleep; say, "Lord,
if he sleep he is well." "Then said Jesus," speaking now more plainly, I tell
you, "our friend Lazarus is dead."15 And in both He said the truth; "He is dead
in respect of you, he is asleep in respect of Me."
5. These three kinds of dead persons, are three kinds of sinners whom even at
this day Christ doth raise. For that dead daughter of the ruler of the synagogue
was within in the house, she had not yet been carried out from the secresy of
its walls into public view. There within was she raised, and restored alive to
her parents. But the second was not now indeed in the house, but still not yet
in the tomb, he had been carried out of the walls, but not committed to the
ground. He who raised the dead maiden who was not yet carried out, raised this
dead man who was now carried out, but not yet buried. There remained a third
case, that He should raise one who was also buried; and this He did in Lazarus.
There are then those who have sin inwardly in the heart, but have it not yet in
overt act. A man, for instance, is disturbed by any lust. For the Lord Himself
saith, "Whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery
with her already in his heart."16 He has not yet in body approached her, but in
heart he has consented; he has one dead within, he has not yet carried him out.
And as it often happens, as we know, as men daily experience in themselves, when
they hear the word of God, as it were the Lord saying, "Arise;" the consent unto
sin is condemned, they breathe again unto saving health and righteousness. The
dead man in the house arises, the heart revives in the secret of the thoughts.
This resurrection of a dead soul takes place within, in the retirement of the
conscience, as it were within the walls of the house. Others after consent
proceed to overt act, carrying out the dead as it were, that that which was
concealed in secret, may appear in public. Are these now, who have advanced to
the outward act, past hope? Was it not said to the young man in the Gospel also,
"I say unto thee, Arise"? Was he not also restored to his mother? So then he too
who has committed the open act, if haply admonished and aroused by the word of
truth, he rise again at the Voice of Christ, is restored alive. Go so far he
could, perish for ever he could not. But they who by doing what is evil, involve
themselves even in evil habit, so that this very habit of evil suffers them not
to see that it is evil, become defenders of their evil deeds; are angry when
they are found fault with; to such a degree, that the men of Sodom of old said
to the righteous man who reproved their abominable design, "Thou art come to
sojourn, not to give laws."17 So powerful in that place was the habit of
abominable filthiness, that profligacy now passed for righteousness, and the
hinderer of it was found fault with rather than the doer. Such as these pressed
down by a malignant habit, are as it were buried. Yea, what shall I say,
Brethren? In such sort buried, as was said of Lazarus, "By this time he stinketh."18
That heap placed upon the grave, is this stubborn force of habit, whereby the
soul is pressed down, and is not suffered either to rise, or breathe again.
6. Now it was said," He hath been dead four days."19 So in truth the soul
arrives at that habit, of which I am speaking by a kind of four-fold progress.
For there is first the provocation as it were of pleasure in the heart, secondly
consent, thirdly the overt act, fourthly the habit. For there are those who so
entirely throw off things unlawful from their thoughts, as not even to feel any
pleasure in them. There are those who do feel the pleasure, and do not consent
to them; death is not yet perfected, but in a certain sort begun. To the feeling
of pleasure is added consent; now at once is that condemnation incurred. After
the consent, progress is made unto the open act; the act changes into a habit;
and a sort of desperate condition is produced, so as that it may be said, "He
hath been dead four days, by this time he stinketh." Therefore, the Lord came,
to whom of course all things were easy; yet He found in that case as it were a
kind of difficulty. He "groaned "20 in the spirit, He showed that there is need
of much and loud remonstrance to raise up those who have grown hard by habit.
Yet at the voice of the Lord's cry, the bands of necessity were burst asunder.
The powers of hell trembled, and Lazarus is restored alive. For the Lord
delivers even from evil habits those who "have been dead four days;" for this
man in the Gospel, "who had been dead four days," was asleep only in respect of
Christ whose will it was to raise him again. But what said He? Observe the
manner of his arising again. He came forth from the tomb alive, but he could not
walk. And the Lord said to the disciples; "Loose him, and let him go."21 "He"
raised him from death, "they" loosed him from his bonds. Observe how there is
something which appertaineth to the special Majesty of God who raiseth up. A man
involved in an evil habit is rebuked by the word of truth. How many are rebuked,
and give no ear! Who is it then who deals within with him who does give ear? Who
breathes life into him within? Who is it who drives away the unseen death, gives
the life unseen? Afterrebukes, after remonstrances, are not men left alone to
their own thoughts, do they not begin to turn over in their minds how evil a
life they are living, with how very bad a habit they are weighed down? Then
displeased with themselves, they determine to change their life. Such have risen
again; they to whom what they have been is displeasing have revived: but though
reviving, they are not able to walk. These are the bands of their guilt. Need
then there is, that whoso has returned to life should be loosed, and let go.
This office hath He given to the disciples to whom He said, "Whatsoever ye shall
bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven also."22
7. Let us then, dearly Beloved, in such wise hear these things, that they
who are alive may live; they who are dead may live again. Whether it be that
as yet the sin has been conceived in the heart, and not come forth into open
act; let the thought be repented of, and corrected, let the dead within the
house of conscience arise. Or whether he has actually committed what he
thought of; let not even thus his case be despaired of. The dead within has
not arisen, let him arise when "he is carried out." Let him repent him of
his deed, let him at once return to life; let him not go to the depth of the
grave, let him not receive the load of habit upon him. But peradventure I am
now speaking to one who is already pressed down by this hard stone of his
own habit, who is already laden with the weight of custom, who "has been in
the grave four days already, and who stinketh." Yet let not even him
despair; he is dead in the depth below, but Christ is exalted on high. He
knows how by His cry to burst asunder the burdens of earth, He knows how to
restore life within by Himself, and to deliver him to the disciples to be
loosed. Let even such as these repent. For when Lazarus had been raised
again after the four days, no foul smell remained in him when he was alive.
So then let them who are alive, still live; and let them who are dead,
whosoever they be, in which kind soever of these three deaths they find
themselves, see to it that they rise again at once with all speed.
1 John v. 21.
2 Luke vii. 12.
3 Eph. v. 14.
5 Luke vii. 14.
6 John xxi. 25.
9 Vid. Serm. xxxix. (lxxxix.
Ben.). Mark xi. 13.
10 Mark v. 35.
11 Mark v. 36.
12 Mark v. 39.
13 Luke vii. 12.
14 Luke vii. 14, 15.
15 John xi. 11, etc.
16 Matt. v. 28.
17 Gen. xix. 9.
18 John xi. 39.
19 John xi. 39.
20 John xi. 38.
21 John xi. 44.
22 Matt, xviii. 18.