Ver. 13. "Wherefore "
How is it "for them?" How is it "their glory?" It is because God so
loved them, as to give even the Son for them, and to afflict His servants
for them: for it was in order that they might attain so many blessings,
that Paul was in prison. Surely this was from God's exceeding love towards
them: it is what God also saith concerning the Prophets, "I have slain
them by the words of my mouth." (Hos. vi: 5) But how was it that they fainted,
when another was afflicted? He means, they were troubled, were distressed.
This also he says when writing to the Thessalonians, "that no man be moved
by these afflictions." (1 Thes. iii: 3) For not only ought we not to grieve,
but we ought even to rejoice. If ye find consolation in the forewarning,
we tell you beforehand that here we have tribulation. And why pray? Because
thus hath the Lord ordered.
Ver. 14, 15. "For this cause "
He here shows the spirit of his prayer for them. He does not say simply,
"I pray," but manifests the supplication to be heartfelt, by the "bowing
of the knees."
"From whom every family."
That is, no longer, he means, reckoned, according to the number of Angels,
but according to Him who hath created the tribes both in heaven above and
in earth beneath, not as the Jewish.
Ver. 16, 17. "That He would grant you according to the riches of
His glory that ye may be strengthened with power through His Spirit in
the inward man; that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith."
Mark with what insatiable earnestness he invokes these blessings upon
them, that they may not be tossed about. But how shall this be effected?
By the "Holy Spirit in your inward man, that Christ may dwell in your hearts
through faith." How again shall this be?
Ver. 18, 19. "To the end that ye being rooted and grounded in love,
may be strong to apprehend with all the saints, what is the breadth, and
length, and height, and depth, "
Thus is his prayer now again, the very same as when he began. For what
were his words in the beginning? "That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ,
the Father of glory may give unto you a Spirit of wisdom and revelation
in the knowledge of Him; having the eyes of your heart enlightened, that
ye may know what is the hope of His calling, what the riches of the glory
of His inheritance in the saints; and what the exceeding greatness of His
power to us-ward who believe." And now again he says the same. "That ye
may be strong to apprehend with all the saints what is the breadth, and
length, and height, and depth;" i.e., to know perfectly the mystery which
hath been providentially ordered in our behalf: "and the breadth, and length,
and height, and depth;" that is, too, the immensity of the love of God,
and how it extends every where. And he outlines it by the visible dimensions
of solid bodies, pointing as it were to a man. He comprehends the upper
and under and sides. I have thus spoken indeed, he would say, yet is it
not for any words of mine to teach you these things; that must be the work
of the Holy Spirit. "By His might," saith he, is it that ye must be "strengthened"
against the trials that await you, and in order to remain unshaken; so
that there is no other way to be strengthened but by the Holy Ghost, both
on account of trials and carnal reasonings.
But how doth Christ dwell in the hearts? Hear what Christ Himself saith,
"I and my Father will come unto him, and make our abode with him." (John
xiv: 23.) He dwelleth in those hearts that are faithful, in those that
are "rooted" in His love, those that remain firm and unshaken.
"That ye may be" thoroughly "strong," saith he; so that there is great
"That ye may be filled unto all the fulness of God."
What he means is this. Although the love of Christ lies above the reach
of all human knowledge, yet shall ye know it, if ye shall have Christ dwelling
in you, yea, not only shall know from Him this, but shall even "be filled
unto all the fulness of God;" meaning by the "fulness of God," either the
knowledge how God is worshipped in the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost,
or else urging them thus to use every effort, in order to be filled with
all virtue, of which God is full.
Ver. 20. "Now unto Him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above
all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh in us."
That God hath done "abundantly above all that we ask or think," is evident
from what the Apostle himself hath written. For I indeed, saith he, pray,
but He of Himself, even without any prayer of mine, will do works greater
than all we ask, not simply "greater," nor "abundantly greater," but "exceeding
abundantly." And this is evident from "the power, that worketh in us:"
for neither did we ever ask these things, nor did we expect them.
Ver. 21. "Unto Him be the glory," he concludes, "in the Church and
in Christ Jesus, unto all generations forever and ever. Amen."
Well does he close the discourse with prayer and doxology; for right
were it that He, who hath bestowed upon us such vast gifts, should be glorified
and blessed, so that this is even a proper part of our amazement at His
mercies, to give glory for the things advanced to us at God's hands through
"The glory in the Church." Well might he say this, forasmuch as the
Church alone can last on to eternity.
It seems necessary to state what are meant by "families." (patriai)
Here on earth, indeed there are "families" that is races sprung from one
parent stock; but in heaven how can this be, where none is born of another?
Surely then, by "families," "the family of Amattari:" (1 Sam. x: 21. See
Septuagint.) or else that it is from Him from whom earthly fathers have
their name of father.
However, he does not ask the whole of God, but demands of them also
faith and love, and not simply love, but love "rooted and grounded," so
that neither any blasts can shake it, nor any thing else overturn it. He
had said, that "tribulations" are "glory," and if mine are so to you, he
would say, much more will your own be: so that to be afflicted is no token
of men being forsaken, for He who hath wrought so great things for us,
never would do this.
Again, if in order to understand the love of God, it was necessary for
Paul to pray, and there was need of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit,
who by following mere reasonings shall understand the nature of Christ?
And why is it a difficult thing to learn that God loveth us? Beloved, it
is extremely difficult. For some know not even this; wherefore, they even
say, numberless evils come to be in the world; and others know not the
extent of this love. Nor, indeed, is Paul seeking to know its extent, nor
with any view to measure it; for how could he? but only to understand this,
that it is transcendent, and great. And this very thing, he says, he is
able to show, even from the knowledge which hath been vouchsafed to us.
However, what is higher than the being "strengthened with might," in
order to have Christ within? Vast are the things we ask, saith he, yet
is He able to do above even them, so that not only doth He love us, but
doth so intensely. Be it our care therefore, beloved, to understand the
love of God. A great thing indeed is this; nothing is so beneficial to
us, nothing so deeply touches us: more availing this to convince our souls
than the fear of hell itself. Whence then shall we understand it? Both
from the sources now mentioned, and from the things which happen every
day. For from what motive have these things been done for us? from what
necessity on His part? None whatever. Over and over again he lays down
love as the cause. But the highest degree of love is that where men receive
a benefit, without any prior service on their part to call for it.
Moral. And let us then be followers of Him; let us do good to our enemies,
to them that hate us, let us draw near to those who turn their backs upon
us. This renders us like unto God. "For if ye love them that love you,"
saith Christ, "what reward have ye?" "Do not even the Gentiles the same."
(Matt. v: 46.) But what is a sure proof of love? To love him that hates
thee. I wish to give you some example, (pardon me,) and since I find it
not among them that are spiritual, I shall quote an instance from them
that are without. See ye not those lovers? How many insults are wreaked
upon them by their mistresses, how many artifices practised, how many punishments
inflicted: yet they are enchained to them, they burn for them, and love
them better than their own souls, passing whole nights before their thresholds.
From them let us take our example, not indeed to love such as those,-women,
I mean, that are harlots; no, but thus to love our enemies. For tell me,
do not harlots treat their lovers with greater insolence than all the enemies
in the world, and squander away their substance, and cast insult in their
face, and impose upon them more servile tasks than upon their own menials?
And yet still they desist not, though no one hath so great an enemy in
any one, as the lover in his mistress. Yea, this beloved one disdains,
and reviles, and oftentimes maltreats him, and the more she is loved, the
more she scorns him. And what can be more brutal than a spirit like this?
Yet notwithstanding he loves her still.
But possibly we shall find love like this in spiritual characters also,
not in those of our day, (for it has "waxed cold,") (Matt. xxiv: 12.) but
in those great and glorious men of old. Moses, the blessed Moses, surpassed
even those that love with human passion. How, and in what way? First, he
gave up the court, and the luxury, and the retinue, and the glory attending
it, and chose rather to be with the Israelites. Yet is this not only what
no one else would ever have done, but would have even been ashamed, were
another to have discovered him, of being found to be a kinsman of men,
who were slaves and not only slaves, but were looked upon as even execrable.
Yet was he not only not ashamed of his kindred, but with all his spirit
defended them, and threw himself into dangers for their sake. (Acts. vii:
24.) How? Seeing, it is said, one doing an injury to one of them, he defended
him that suffered the injury, and slew him that inflicted it. But this
is not as yet for the sake of enemies. Great indeed is this act of itself,
but not so great as what comes afterwards. The next day, then, he saw the
same thing taking place, and when he saw him whom he had defended "Who
made thee a ruler and a judge over us?" (Acts. vii: 27) Who would not have
taken fire at these words? Had then the former act been that of passion
and frenzy, then would he have smitten and killed this man also; for surely
he on whose behalf it was done, never would have informed against him.
But because they were brethren, it is said, he spoke thus. When he [the
Hebrew] was being wronged, he uttered no such word "Who made thee a ruler
and a judge over us?" "Wherefore saidst thou not this yesterday?" Moses
would say, "Thy injustice, and thy cruelty, these make me a ruler and a
But now, mark, how that some, in fact, say as much even to God Himself.
Whenever they are wronged indeed, they would have Him a God of vengeance,
and complain of His long suffering; but when themselves do wrong, not for
However, what could be more bitter than words like these? And yet notwithstanding,
after this, when he was sent to that ungrateful, to that thankless race,
he went, and shrunk not back. Yea, and after those miracles, and after
the wonders wrought by his hand, oftentimes they sought to stone him to
death and he escaped out of their hands. They kept murmuring too incessantly,
and yet still, notwithstanding, so passionately did he love them, as to
say unto God, when they committed that heinous sin, "Yet now if Thou wilt
forgive, forgive their sin; and if not, blot even me also out of the book
which Thou hast written." (Ex. xxxii: 32.) Fain would I perish, saith he,
with them, rather than without them be saved. Here, verily, is love even
to madness, verily, unbounded love. What sayest thou, Moses? Art thou regardless
of Heaven? I am, saith he, for I love those who have wronged me. Prayest
thou to be blotted out? Yea, saith he, what can I do, for it is love? And
what again after these things? Hear what the Scripture saith elsewhere;
"And it went ill with Moses for their sakes." (Ps. cvi: 32.) How often
did they wax wanton? How often did they reject both himself and his brother?
How often did they seek to return back to Egypt? and yet after all these
things did he burn, yea, was beside himself with love for them, and was
ready to suffer for their sakes.
Thus ought a man to love his enemies; by lamentation, by unwearied endurance,
by doing everything, by showing all favor, to aim at their salvation.
And what again, tell me, did Paul? did he not ask even to be accursed
in their stead? (Rom. ix: 3.) But the great pattern we must of necessity
derive from the Lord, for thus doth He also Himself, where he saith, "For
He maketh His sun to rise on the evil and the good." (Matt. v: 45.) adducing
the example from His Father; but we from Christ Himself. He came unto them,
in His Incarnation, I mean, He became a servant for their sakes, "He humbled
Himself, He emptied Himself, He took the form of a servant." (Phil. ii:
7, Phil. ii: 8.) And when He came unto them, He went not Himself aside
"into any way of the Gentiles," (Matt. x: 5.) and gave the same charge
to His disciples, and not only so, but "He went about healing all manner
of disease, and all manner of sickness. (Matt. iv: 23.) And what then?
All the rest indeed were astonished, and marvelled, and said, "Whence,
then, hath this man all these things?" (Matt. xiii: 56.) But these, the
objects of His beneficence, these said, "He hath a devil," (John x: 20.)
and "blasphemeth," (John x: 36.) and "is mad," and is a "deceiver," (John
vii: 12, and Matt. xxvii: 63.) Did he therefore cast them away? No, in
no wise, but when He heard these sayings, He even yet more signally bestowed
His benefits upon them, and went straightway to them that were about to
crucify Him, to the intent that He might but only save them. And after
He was crucified, what were His words? "Father, forgive them, for they
know not what they do." (Luke xxiii: 34.) Both cruelly treated before this,
and cruelly treated after this, even to the very latest breath, for them
He did every thing, in their behalf He prayed. Yea, and after the Cross
itself, what did He not do for their sakes? Did He not send Apostles? Did
He not work miracles? Did He not shake the whole world?
Thus is it we ought to love our enemies, thus to imitate Christ. Thus
did Paul. Stoned, suffering unnumbered cruelties, yet did he all things
for their good. Hear his own words. "My heart's desire and my supplication
to God is for them that they may be saved." (Rom. x: 1, Rom. x: 2.) And
again; "For I bear them witness that they have a zeal for God." And again;
"If thou, being a wild olive tree wast grafted in, how much more shall
these be grafted into their own olive tree?" (Rom. xi: 24.) How tender,
thinkest thou, must be the affection from which these expressions proceed,
how vast the benevolence? it is impossible to express it, impossible.
Thus is it we ought to love our enemies. This is to love God, Who hath
enjoined it, Who hath given it as His law. To imitate Him is to love our
enemy. Consider it is not thine enemy thou art benefiting, but thyself;
thou art not loving him, but art obeying God. Knowing therefore these things,
let us confirm our love one to another, that we may perform this duty perfectly,
and attain those good things that are promised in Christ Jesus our Lord,
with Whom to the Father, together with the Holy Ghost, be glory, might,
and honor, now, and for ever and ever. Amen.