Matthew Chapter 22, Verse 34-Matthew Chapter 22, Verse 36
"But when the Pharisees had heard that He had put the Sadducees to
silence, they were gathered together; and one of them, which was a lawyer,
asked Him a question, tempting Him, and saying, Master, which is the great
commandment in the law?"
Again doth the evangelist express the cause, for which they ought to
have held their peace, and marks their boldness by this also. How and in
what way? Because when those others were put to silence, these again assail
Him. For when they ought even for this to hold their peace, they strive
to urge further their former endeavors,1 and put forward the lawyer, not
desiring to learn, but making a trial of Him, and ask, "What is the first
For since the first commandment was this, "Thou shalt love the Lord
thy God," thinking that He would afford them some handle, as though He
would amend it, for the sake of showing that Himself too was God, they
propose the question. What then saith Christ? Indicating from what they
were led to this; from having no charity, from pining with envy. from being
seized by jealousy, He saith, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God. This is
the first and great commandment.2 And the second is like unto this3 Thou
shalt love thy neighbor as thyself."4
But wherefore "like unto this?" Because this makes the way for that,
and by it is again established; "For every one that doeth evil hateth the
light, neither cometh to the light;'5 and again, "The fool hath said in
his heart, There is no God." And what in consequence of this? "They are
corrupt, and become abominable in their ways."6 And again, "The love of
money is the root of all evils; which while some coveted after they have
erred from the faith; "7 and, "He that loveth me, will keep my commandment."8
But His commandments, and the sum of them, are, "Thou shalt love the
Lord thy God, and thy neighbor as thyself." If therefore to love God is
to love one's neighbor, "For if thou lovest me," He saith, "O Peter, feed
my sheep,"9 but to love one's neighbor worketh a keeping of the commandments,
with reason doth He say, "On these hang all the law and the prophets."10
So therefore what He did before, this He doth here also. I mean, that
both there, when asked about the manner of the resurrection, He also taught
a resurrection, instructing "For charity envieth not."11 By this He shows
Himself to be submissive both to the law and to the prophets.
But wherefore doth Matthew say that he asked, tempting Him, but Mark
the contrary? "For when Jesus," he saith, "saw that he answered discretly,
He said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God."12
They are not contradicting each other, but indeed fully agreeing. For
he asked indeed, tempting, at the beginning, but being benefitted by the
answer, was commended. For not at the beginning did He commend him, but
when he had said, "That to love his neighbor is more than whole burnt sacrifices,"
then He saith, "Thou art not far from the kingdom;" because he overlooked
low things, and embraced the first principle of virtue. For indeed all
those are for the sake of this, as well the Sabbath as the rest.
And not even so did He make His commendation perfect, but yet deficient.
For His saying, "Thou art not far off," indicates that he is yet falling
short, that he might seek after what was deficient.
But if, when He said, "There is one God, and there is none other but
He," He commended him, wonder not, but by this too observe, how He answers
according to the opinion of them that come unto Him. For although men say
ten thousand things about Christ unworthy of His glory, yet this at any
rate they will not dare to say, that He is not God at all. Wherefore then
doth He praise him that said, that beside the Father, there is no other
Not excepting Himself from being God; away with the thought; but since
it was not yet time to disclose His Godhead, He suffers him to remain in
the former doctrine, and praises him for knowing well the ancient principles,
so as to make him fit for the doctrine of the New Testament, which He is
bringing in its season.
And besides, the saying, "There is one God, and there is none other
but He," both in the Old Testament and everywhere, is spoken not to the
rejection of the Son, but to make the distinction from idols. So that when
praising this man also, who had thus spoken, He praises him in this mind.
Then since He had answered, He asks also: in turn, "What think ye of
Christ, whose Son is He? They say unto Him, The Son of David."13
See after how many miracles, after how many signs, after how many question,
after how great a display of His unanimity with the Father, as well in
words, as in deeds; after having praised this man that said, that there
is one God, He asks the question, that they may not be able to say, that
He did miracles indeed, yet was an adversary to the law, and a foe to God.
Therefore, after so many things, He asks these questions, secretly leading
them on to confess Him also to be God. And the disciples He asked first
what the others say, and then themselves; but these not so; for surely
they would have said a deceiver, and a wicked one, as speaking all things
without fear. So for this cause He inquires for the opinion of these men
For since He was now about to go on to His passion, He sees forth the
prophecy that plainly proclaims Him to be Lord; and not as having come
to do this without occasion, nor as having made this His aim, but from
a reasonable cause.
For having asked them first, since they answered not the truth concerning
Him (for they said He was a mere man), to overthrow their mistaken opinion,
He thus introduces David proclaiming His Godhead. For they indeed supposed
that He was a mere man, wherefore also they said, "the Son of David;"14
but He to correct this brings in the prophet witnessing to His being Lord,
and the genuineness of His Sonship, and His equality in honor with His
And not even at this doth He stop, but in order to move them to fear,
He adds what followeth also, saying, "Till I make Thine enemies Thy footstool;"15
that at least in this way He might gain them over.
And that they may not say, that it was in flattery he so called Him,
and that this was a human judgment, see what He saith, "How then doth David
in spirit call Him Lord?" See how submissively He introduces the sentence
and judgment concerning Himself. First. He had said, "What think ye? Whose
Son is He?" so by a question to bring them to an answer. Then since they
said, "the Son of David," He said not, "And yet David saith these things,"
but again in this order of a question, "How then doth David in spirit call
Him Lord?" in order that the sayings might not give offense to them. Wherefore
neither did He say, What think ye of me, but of Christ. For this reason
the apostles also reasoned submissively, saying, "Let us speak freely of
the Patriarch David, that he is both dead and buried."16
And He Himself too in like manner for this cause introduces the doctrine
in the way of question and inference, saying, "How then doth David in spirit
call Him Lord, saying, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou on my right
hand, until I make Thy foes Thy footstool;"17 and again, "If David then
call Him Lord, how is He then his Son,"18 not taking away the fact that
He is his Son, away with the thought; for He would not then have reproved
Peter for this,19 but to correct their secret thoughts. So that when He
saith, "Howls He his Son?" He meaneth this, not so as ye say. For they
said, that He is Son only, and not also Lord. And this after the testimony,
and then submissively, "If David then call Him Lord, how is He his Son?"
But, nevertheless, even when they had heard these things, they answered
nothing, for neither did they wish to learn any of the things that were
needful. Wherefore He Himself addeth and saith, that "He is his Lord."
Or rather not even this very thing doth He say without support, but having
taken the prophet with Him, because of His being exceedingly distrusted
by them, and evil reported of amongst them. To which fact we ought to have
especial regard, and if anything be said by Him that is lowly and submissive,
not to be offended, for the cause is this, with many other things also,
that He talks with them in condescension.
Wherefore now also He delivers His doctrine in the manner of question
and answer; but He darkly intimates even in this way His dignity. For it
was not as much to be called Lord of the Jews, as of David.
But mark thou also, I pray thee, how seasonable it is. For when He had
said, "There is one Lord," then He spake of Himself that He is Lord, and
showed it by prophecy, no more by His works only. And He showeth the Father
Himself taking vengeance upon them in His behalf, for He saith, "Until
I make Thine enemies Thy footstool," and great unanimity even hereby on
the part of Him that begat Him towards Himself, and honor. And upon His
reasonings with them He doth set this end high and great, and sufficient
to close fast their mouths.
For they were silent from thenceforth, not willingly, but from their
having nothing to say; and they received so deadly a blow, as no longer
to dare to attempt the same things any more. For, "no one," it is said,
"durst from that day forth ask Him any more questions."20
And this was no little advantage to the multitude.21 Therefore also
unto them doth He henceforth direct His word, having removed the wolves,
and having repulsed their plots.
For those men gained nothing, taken captive by vainglory, and having
fallen upon this terrible passion. For terrible is this passion and many-headed,
for some set their heart upon power for the sake of this, some on wealth,
some on strength. But proceeding in order it goes on unto almsgiving also,
and fasting, and prayers, and teaching, and many are the heads of this
But to be vainglorious indeed about those other things is nothing wonderful;
but to be so about fasting and prayer, this is strange and lamentable.
But that we may not again blame only, come and let us tell the means,
by which we shall avoid this. Against whom shall we prepare to contend
first, against those that are vainglorious of money, or those of dress,
or those of places of power, or those of sciences, or those of art, or
those of their person, or those of beauty, or those of ornaments, or those
of cruelty, or those of humanity and almsgiving, or those of wickedness,
or those of death, or those after death? For indeed, as I have said, this
passion hath many links? and goes on beyond our life. For such a one, it
is said, is dead, and that he may be held in admiration, hath charged that
such and such things be done; and therefore such a one is poor, such a
For the grievous thing is this, that even of opposite things is it made
Against whom then shall we stand, and let ourselves in array first?
For one and the same discourse suffices not against all. Will ye then that
it be against them that are vainglorious about almsgiving?
To me at least it seems well; for exceedingly do I love this thing,
and am pained at seeing it marred, and vainglory plotting against it, like
a pandering nurse against some royal damsel. For she feeds her indeed,
but for disgrace and mischief, prostituting her and commanding her to despise
her father; but to deck herself to please unholy and often despicable men;
and invests her with such a dress, as strangers wish, disgraceful, and
dishonorable, not such as the father.
Come now, then, let us take our aim against these; and let there be
an almsgiving made in abundance for display to the multitude. Surely then,
first vainglory leads her out of her Father's chamber. And whereas her
Father requires not to appear so much as to the left hand,22 she displays
her to the slaves, and to the vulgar, that have not even known her.
Seest thou a harlot, and pander, casting her into the love of foolish
men, that according as they require, so she may order herself? Dost thou
desire to see how it renders such a soul not a harlot only, but insane
Mark then her mind. For when she lets go heaven and runs after fugitives
and menial slaves, pursuing through streets and lanes them that hate her,
the ugly and deformed, them that are not willing so much as to look at
her, them that, when she burns with love towards them, hate her, what can
be more insane than this? For no one do the multitude hate so much, as
those that want the glory they have to bestow. Countless accusations at
least do they frame against them, and the result is the same, as if any
one were to bring down a virgin daughter of the king from the royal throne,
and to require her to prostitute herself to gladiators, who abhorred her.
These then, as much as thou pursuest them, so much do they turn away from
thee; but God, if thou seek the glory that cometh from Him, so much the
more both draws thee unto Himself, and commends thee, and great is the
reward He renders unto thee.
But if thou art minded in another way also to discern the mischief thereof,
when thou givest for display and ostentation, consider how great the sorrow
that then comes upon thee, and how continual the desponding, while Christ's
voice is heard in thine ears, saying,23 "Thou hast lost all thy reward."
For in every matter indeed vainglory is a bad thing. yet most of all in
beneficence, for it is the utmost cruelty, making a show of the calamities
of others, and all but upbraiding those in poverty. For if to mention one's
own good actions is to upbraid, what dost thou think it is to publish them
even to many others.
How then shall we escape the danger? If we learn how to give alms, if
we see after whose good report we are to seek. For tell me, who has the
skill of almsgiving? Plainly, it is God, who hath made known the thing.
who best of all knows it, and practises it without limit. What then? If
thou art learning to be a wrestler, to whom dost thou look? or to whom
dost thou display thy doings in the wrestling school, to the seller of
herbs, and of fish, or to the trainer? And ye they are many, and he is
one. What then, if while the admires thee, others deride thee. wilt thou
not with him deride them?
What, if thou art learning to box, wilt thou not look in like manner
to him who knows how to teach this? And if thou art practising oratory,
wilt thou not accept the praise of the teacher of rhetoric, and despise
How then is it other than absurd, in other arts to look to the teacher
only, but here to do the contrary? although the loss be not equal. For
there, if you wrestle according to the opinion of the multitude, and not
that of the teacher, the loss is in the wrestling; but here it is in eternal
life. Thou art become like to God in giving alms; be thou then like Him
in not making a display. For even He said, when healing, that they should
tell no man.
But dost thou desire to be called merciful amongst men? And what is
the gain? The gain is nothing; but the loss infinite. For these very persons,
whom thou callest to be witnesses. become robbers of thy treasures that
are in the heavens; or rather not these, but ourselves, who spoil our own
possessions, and scatter what we have laid up above.
O new calamity! this strange passion. Where moth corrupteth not, nor
thief breaketh through, vainglory scattereth. This is the moth of those
treasures there; this the thief of our wealth in heaven; this steals away
the riches that cannot be spoiled; this mars and corrupts all. For because
the devil saw that that place is impregnable to thieves and to the worm,
and the other plots against them, he by vainglory steals away the wealth.
But dost thou desire glory? Doth not then that suffice thee which is
given by the receiver himself, that from our gracious God, but dost thou
set thine heart on that from men also? Take heed, lest thou undergo the
contrary, lest some condemn thee as not showing mercy, but making a display,
and seeking honor, as making a show of the calamities of others.
For indeed the showing of mercy is a mystery. Shut therefore the doors,
that none may see what it is not pious to display. For our mysteries too
are above all things, a showing of God's mercy and loving-kindness. According
to His great mercy, He had mercy on us being disobedient.
And the first prayer too is full of mercy, when we entreat for the energumens;
and the second again, for others under penance seeking for much mercy;
and the third also for ourselves, and this puts forward the innocent children
of the people entreating God for mercy. For since we condemn ourselves
for sins, for them that have sinned much and deserve to be blamed we ourselves
cry; but for ourselves the children; for the imitators of whose simplicity
the kingdom of heaven is reserved. For this image shows this, that they
who are like those children, lowly and simple, these above all men are
able to deliver the guilty by their prayers.
But the mystery itself, of how much mercy, of how much love to man it
is full, the initiated know.
Do thou then, when according to thy power thou art showing mercy to
a man, shut the doors, let the object of thy mercy see it only; but if
it be possible, not even he. But if thou set them open, thou art profanely
exposing thy mystery.
Consider that the very person, whose praise thou seekest, even himself
will condemn thee; and if he be a friend, will accuse thee to himself;
but if an enemy, he will deride thee unto others also. And thou wilt undergo
the opposite of what thou desirest. For thou indeed desirest that he should
call thee the merciful man; but he will not call thee this, but the vainglorious,
the man-pleaser, and other names far more grievous than these.
But if thou shouldest hide it, he will call thee all that is opposite
to this; the merciful, the kind. For God suffers it not to be hidden; but
if thou conceal it, the other will make it known, and greater will be the
admiration, and more abundant the gain. So that even for this very object
of being glorified, to make a display is against us; for with respect to
the thing unto which we most hasten and press, as to this most especially
is this thing against us. For so far from obtaining the credit of being
merciful, we obtain even the contrary, and besides this, great is the loss
For every motive then let us abstain from this, and set our love on
God's praise alone. For thus shall we both attain to honor here, and enjoy
the eternal blessings, by the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus
Christ, to whom be glory and might world without end. Amen.