Ephesians 4:17-19. "This I say therefore, and testify in
the Lord, that ye no longer walk as the Gentiles also walk, in the vanity
of their mind, being darkened in their understanding, alienated from the
life of God, because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardening
of their heart: who being past feeling, gave themselves up to lasciviousness,
to work all uncleanness with greediness."
These words are not addressed to the Ephesians only, but are now addressed
also to you; and that, not from me, but from Paul; or rather neither from
me nor from Paul, but from the grace of the Spirit. And we then ought so
to feel, as though that grace itself were uttering them. And now hear what
it saith. "This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that ye no longer
walk as the Gentiles also walk in the vanity of their mind, being darkened
in their understanding, alienated from the life of God because of the ignorance
that is in them, because of the hardening of their heart." If then it is
ignorance, if it is hardening, why blame it? if a man is ignorant, it
were just, not that he should be ill-treated for it, nor be blamed, but
that he should be informed of those things of which he is ignorant. But
mark how at once he cuts them off from all excuse. "Who bring past feeling"
saith he, "gave themselves up to lasciviousness, to work all uncleanness
with greediness but ye did not so learn Christ." Here he shows us, that
the cause of their hardening was their way of life, and that their life
was the consequence of their own indolence and want of feeling.
"Who bring past feeling," saith he, "gave themselves up."
Whenever then ye hear, that "God gave them up unto a reprobate mind"
(Rom. 1:28), remember this expression, that "they gave themselves up."
If then they gave themselves over, how did God give them over? and if again
God gave them over, how did they give themselves over? Thou seest the seeming
contradiction. The word, "gave them over," then, means this, He permitted
them to be given over. Seest thou, that the impure life is the ground for
like doctrines also? "Every one," saith the Lord, "that doeth ill hateth
the light, and cometh not to the light." (John 3:20) For how could a profligate
man, one more immersed in the practice of indiscriminate lewdness than
the swine that wallow in the mire, and who is a lover of money, and
has not so much as any desire after temperance, enter upon a life like
this? They made the thing, saith he, their "work." Hence their "hardening"
(ver. 19), hence the "darkness of their understanding." There is such a
thing as bring in the dark, even while the light is shining, when the eyes
are weak; and weak they become, either joy the influx of ill humors, or
by superabundance of rheum. And so surely is it also here; when the strong
current of the affairs of this life overwhelms the perceptive power of
the understanding, it is thrown into a state of darkness. And in the same
way as if we were placed in the depths under water, we should be unable
to see the sun through the quantity of water lying, like heart takes place,
that is, an insensibility, whenever there is no fear to agitate the soul.
"There is no fear of God," it saith, "before his eyes" (Ps. 36:1); and
again, "The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God." (Ps. 14:1) Now
blindness arises from no other cause than from want of feeling; this dogs
the channel; for whenever the fluids are curdled and collected into one
place, the limb becomes dead and void of feeling; and though thou burn
it, or cut it, or do what thou wilt with it, still it feels not. So is
it also with those persons, when they have once given themselves over to
lasciviousness: though thou apply the word to them like fire, or steel,
yet noting touches, nothing reaches them; their limb is utterly dead. And
unless thou canst remove the insensibility, so as to touch the healthy
members, everything thou doest is vain.
"With greediness," saith he.
Here he has most completely token away their excuse; for it was in their
power, if at least they chose it, not to be "greedy," nor to be "lascivious,"
nor gluttonous, and yet to enjoy their desires. It was in their power to
partake in moderation of riches, and even of pleasure and of luxury;
but when they indulged the thing immoderately, they destroyed all.
"To work all uncleanness," saith he.
Ye see how he strips them of all excuse by speaking of "working uncleanness."
They did not sin, he means, by making a false step, but they worked out
these horrid deeds, and they made the thing a matter of study. "All uncleanness";
uncleanness is all adultery, fornication, unnatural lust, envy, every kind
of profligacy and lasciviousness.
Ver. 20, 21. "But ye did not so learn Christ," he continues, "if
so be that ye heard Him, and were taught in Him even as truth is in Jesus."
The expression, "If so be that ye heard Him," is not that of one doubting,
but of one even strongly affirming: as he also speaks elsewhere, "If so
be that it is a righteous thing with God to recompense affliction to them
that afflict you." (2 Thess. 1:6) That is to say, It was not for these
purposes that "ye learned Christ."
Ver. 22. "That ye put away as concerning your former manner of life,
the old man."
This then surely is to learn Christ, to live rightly; for he that lives
wickedly knows not God, neither is known of Him; for hear what he saith
elsewhere, "They profess that they know God, but by their works they deny
Him." (Tit. 1:16)
"As truth is in Jesus; that ye put away as concerning your former
manner of life, the old man."
That is to say, It was not on these terms that thou enteredst into covenant.
What is found among us is not vanity, but truth. As the doctrines are true,
so is the life also. Sin is vanity and falsehood; but a right life is truth.
For temperance is indeed truth, for it has a great end; whereas profligacy
ends in nothing.
"Which waxeth corrupt," saith he, "after the lusts of deceit." As his
lusts became corrupt, so himself also. How then do his lusts become corrupt?
By death all things are dissolved; for hear the Prophet, how he saith,
"In that very day his thoughts perish." (Ps. 146:4) And not by death only,
but by many things besides; for instance, beauty, at the advance of either
disease or old age, withdraws and dies away, and suffers corruption. Bodily
vigor again is destroyed by the same means; nor does luxury itself afford
the same pleasure in old age, as is evident from the case of Barzillai:
the history, no doubt, ye know. Or again, in another sense, lust corrupts
and destroys the old man; for as wool is destroyed by the very same means
by which it is produced, so likewise is the old man. For love of glory
destroys him, and pleasures will often destroy him, and "lust" will utterly
"deceive" him. For this is not really pleasure but bitterness and deceit,
all pretense and outward show. The surface, indeed, of the things is bright,
but the things themselves are only full of misery and extreme wretchedness,
and loathsomeness, and utter poverty. Take off the mask, and lay bare the
true face, and thou shalt see the cheat, for cheat it is, when that which
is, appears not, and that which is not, is displayed. And it is thus that
impositions are effected.
The Apostle delineates for us four men. Of these I shall give an
explanation. In this place he mentions two, speaking thus, "Putting away
the old man, be ye renewed in the spirit of your mind, and put on the new
man." And in the Epistle to the Romans, two more, as where he saith, "But
I see a different law in my members warring against the law of my mind,
and bringing me into captivity under the law of sin which is in my members."
(Rom. 7:23) And "old man" to the "outer main" However, three of these four
were subject to corruption. Or rather there are three, the new man the
old, and this, man in his substance and nature.
Ver. 23. "And that ye be renewed," saith he, "in the spirit of your
In order that no one may suppose that, whereas he speaks of old and
new, he is introducing a different person, observe his expression, "That
ye be renewed." To be renewed is, when the selfsame thing which has grown
old is renewed, Changed from one thing into the other. So that the subject
indeed is the same, but the change is in that which is accidental. Just
as the body indeed is the same, and the change in that which is accidental,
so is it here. How then is the renewal to take place? "In the spirit of
your mind," saith he. Whosoever therefore has the Spirit, will perform
no old deed, for the Spirit will not endure old deeds. "In the spirit,"
saith he, "of your mind," that is, in the spirit which is in your mind.
Ver. 24. "And put on the new man."
Seest thou that the subject is one, but the clothing is twofold, that
which is put off, and that which is put on? "The new man," he continues,
"which after God hath been created in righteousness and holiness of truth."
Now wherefore does he call virtue a man? And wherefore vice, a man? Because
a man cannot be shown without acting; so that these things, no less than
nature, show a man, whether he be good or evil. Now as to undress one's
self and to dress one's self is easy, so may we see it is with virtue and
vice. The young man is strong; wherefore let us also become strong for
the performance of good actions. The young man has no wrinkle, therefore
neither should we have. The young man wavers not, nor is he easily taken
with diseases, therefore neither should we be.
Observe here how he calls this realizing of virtue, this bringing of
it into being from nothing, a "creation." But what? was not that other
former creation after God? No, in no wise, but after the devil. He is the
sole creator of sin.
How is this? For man is created henceforth, not of water, nor of each,
but "in righteousness and holiness of truth." What is this? He straightway
created him, he means, to be a son: for this takes place from Baptism.
This it is which is the reality," in righteousness and holiness of truth."
There was of old a righteousness, there was likewise a holiness with the
Jews. Yet was that righteousness not in truth, but in figure. For the being
clean in body was a type of purity, not the truth of purity; was a type
of righteousness, not the truth of righteousness. "In righteousness," saith
he, "and holiness," which are "of truth."
And this expression is used with reference to falsehood; for many there
are, who to them that are without, seem to be righteous, yet are false.
Now by righteousness is meant universal virtue. For hearken to Christ,
how He saith, "Except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness
of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in nowise enter into the kingdom
of heaven." (Matt. 5:20) And again, he is called righteous, who has no
charge against him; for so even in courts of justice we say that that man
is righteous, who has been unrighteously treated, and has not done unrighteously
in return. If therefore we also before the terrible Tribunal shall be able
to appear righteous one towards another, we may meet with some lovingkindness.
Toward God indeed it is impossible we should appear so, whatever we may
have to show. For everywhere He overcometh in what is righteous, as the
Prophet also saith, "That Thou mightest prevail when Thou comest into
judgment." But if we violate not what is righteous towards each other,
then shall we be righteous. If we shall be able to show that we have been
treated unrighteously, then Shall we be righteous.
How does he say to them who are already clothed, "put on"? He is now
speaking of that clothing which is from life and good works. Before, the
clothing was from Baptism, whereas now it is from the daily life and from
works; no longer "after the lusts of deceit," but "after God." But what
means the word "holy"? It is that which is pure, that which is due; hence
also we use the word of the last duty in the case of the departed, as much
as to say, "I owe them nothing further, I have nothing else to answer for."
Thus it is usual for us to say, "I have acquitted myself of all obligations,"
and the like, meaning, "I owe nothing more."
Moral. Our part then is, never to put off the garment of righteousness,
which also the Prophet calls, "the garment of salvation" (Isa. 61:10),
that so we may be made like unto God. For He indeed hath put on righteousness.
This garment let us put on. Now the word, "put on," plainly declares nothing
else, than that we should never at all put it off. For hear the Prophet,
where he saith, "He clothed himself also with cursing as with his garment,
and it came into his inward parts." (Ps. 109:18) And again, "Who coverest
Thyself with light as with a garment." (Ps. 104:2) And again, it is usual
with us to speak concerning men, such an one has "put on" such an one.
So then it is not for one day, nor for two, nor for three, but he would
have us ever arrayed in virtue, and never stripped of this garment. For
a man is not so disfigured when he is stripped of his clothing, as when
he is stripped of his virtue. In the former case his fellow-servants behold
his nakedness, in the latter his Lord and the Angels If ever thou happen
to see any one going out naked through the public square, tell me, art
thou not distressed? When then thou goest about stripped of this garment,
what shall we say? Seest not those beggars whom we are wont to call strollers,
how they roam about, how we pity even them? And yet nevertheless they are
without excuse. We do not excuse them when they have lost their clothes
by gaming; and how then, if we lose this garment, shall God pardon us?
For whenever the devil sees a man stripped of his virtue, he straightway
disguises and disfigures his face, and wounds him, and drives him to great
Let us strip ourselves of our riches, that we be not stripped of righteousness.
The garb of wealth mars this garment. It is a robe of thorns. Thorns are
of this nature; and the more closely they are wrapped around us, the more
naked are we made. Lasciviousness strips us of this garment; for it is
a fire, and the fire will consume this garment. Wealth is a moth; and as
the moth eats through all things alike, and spares not even silken garments,
so does this also. All these therefore let us put off, that we may become
righteous, that we may "put on the new man." Let us keep nothing old, nothing
outward, nothing that is "corrupt." Virtue is not toilsome, she is not
difficult to attain. Dost thou not see them that are in the mountains?
They forsake both houses, and wives, and children, and all preeminence,
and shut themselves away from the world, and clothe themselves in sackcloth,
and strew ashes beneath them; they wear collars hung about their necks,
and have pent themselves up in a narrow cell. Nor do they stop here,
but torture themselves with fastings and continual hunger. Did I now enjoin
you to do the like, would ye not all start away? Would ye not say, it is
intolerable? But no, I say not that we must needs do anything like this:--I
would fain indeed that it were so, still I lay down no law. What then?
Enjoy thy baths, take care of thy body, and throw thyself freely into the
world, and keep a household, have thy servants to wait on thee, and make
free use of thy meats and drinks! But everywhere drive out excess, for
that it is which causes sin, and the same thing, whatever it be, if it
becomes excessive, becomes a sin; so that excess is nothing else than sin.
For observe, when anger is excited above what is meet, then it rushes out
into insult, then it commits every sort of injury; so does inordinate passion
for beauty, for riches, for glory, or for anything else. And tell me not,
that indeed, those of whom I spoke were strong; for many far weaker and
richer, and more luxurious than thou art, have taken upon them that austere
and rugged life. And why speak I of men? Damsels not yet twenty years old,
who have spent their whole time in inner chambers, and in a delicate and
effeminate mode of life, in inner chambers full of sweet ointments and
perfumes, reclining on soft couches, themselves soft in their nature, and
rendered yet more tender by their over indulgence, who all the day long
have had no other business than to adorn themselves, to wear jewels, and
to enjoy every luxury, who never waited on themselves, but had numerous
handmaids standing beside them, who wore soft raiment softer than their
skin, fine linen and delicate, who reveled continually in roses and such
like sweet odors,--yea, these very ones, in a moment, seized with Christ's
flame, have put off all that indolence and even their very nature, have
forgotten their delicateness and youth, and like so many noble wrestlers,
have stripped themselves of that soft clothing, and rushed into the midst
of the contest. And perhaps I shall appear to be telling things incredible,
yet nevertheless are they true. These then, these very tender damsels,
as I myself have heard, have brought themselves to such a degree of severe
training, that they will wrap the coarsest horsehair about their own naked
bodies, and go with those tender soles unsandaled, and will lie upon a
bed of leaves: nay more, that they watch the greater part of the night,
and that they take no heed of perfumes nor of any other of their old delights,
but will even let their head, once so carefully dressed, go without special
care, with the hair just plainly and simply bound up, so as not to fall
into unseemliness. And their only meal is in the evening, a meal not even
of herbs nor of bread, but of flour and beans and pulse and olives and
figs. They spin without intermission, and labor far harder than their handmaids
at home. What more? they will take upon them to wait upon women who are
sick, carrying their beds, and washing their feet. Nay, many of them even
cook. So great is the power of the flame of Christ; so far does their zeal
surpass their very nature.
However, I demand nothing like this of you, seeing ye have a mind to
be outstripped by women. Yet at least, if there be any tasks not too laborious,
at least perform these: restrain the rude hand, and the incontinent eye.
What is there, tell me, so hard, what so difficult? Do what is just and
right, wrong no man, be ye poor or rich, shopkeepers or hired servants;
for unrighteousness may extend even to the poor. Or see ye not how many
broils these engage in, and turn all things upside down? Marry freely,
and have children. Paul also gave charge to such, to such he wrote. Is
that struggle I spoke of too great, and the rock too lofty, and its top
too nigh unto Heaven, and art thou unable to attain to such an height?
At least then lay hold on lesser things, and aim at those which are lower.
Hast thou not courage to get rid of thine own riches? At least then forbear
to seize on the things of others, and to do them wrong. Art thou unable
to fast? At least then give not thyself to self-indulgence. Art thou unable
to lie upon a bed of leaves? Still, prepare not for yourselves couches
inlaid with silver; but use a couch and coverings formed not for display,
but for refreshment; not couches of ivory. Make thyself small. Why fill
thy vessel with overwhelming cargoes? If thou be lightly equipped, thou
shalt have nothing to fear, no envy, no robbers, no liers in wait. For
indeed thou art not so rich in money as thou art in cares. Thou aboundest
not so much in possessions, as in anxieties and in perils, "which bring
in many temptations and lusts." (1 Tim. 6:9) These things they endure,
who desire to gain great possessions. I say not, minister unto the sick;
yet, at least, bid thy servant do it. Seest thou then how that this is
no toilsome task? No, for how can it be, when tender damsels surpass us
by so great a distance? Let us be ashamed of ourselves, I entreat you;
for in worldly matters, to be sure, we in no point yield to them, neither
in wars, nor in games; but in the spiritual contest they get the advantage
of us and are the first to seize the prize, and soar higher, like so many
eagles: whilst we, like jackdaws, are ever living in the steam and smoke;
for truly is it the business of jackdaws, and of greedy dogs, to be setting
one's thoughts upon caterers and cooks. Hearken about the women of old;
they were great characters, great women and admirable; such were Sarah,
Rebekah, Rachel, Deborah, and Hannah; and such there were also in the days
of Christ. Yet did they in no case outstrip the men, but occupied the second
rank. But now it is the very contrary; women outstrip and eclipse us. How
contemptible! What a shame is this! We hold the place of the head, and
are surpassed by the body. We are ordained to rule over them; not merely
that we may rule, but that we may rule in goodness also; for he that ruleth,
ought especially to rule in this respect, by excelling in virtue; whereas
if he is surpassed, he is no longer ruler Perceive ye how great is the
power of Christ's coming? how He dissolved the curse? For indeed there
are more virgins than before among women, there is more modesty in those
virgins, and there are more widows. No woman would lightly utter so much
as an unseemly word. Wherefore then, tell me, dost thou use filthy speech?
For tell me not that they were virgins in despondency or despair.
The sex is fond of ornament, and it has this failing. Yet even in this
you husbands surpass them, who pride yourselves even upon them, as your
own proper ornament; for I do not think that the wife is so ostentatious
of her own jewels, as the husband is of those of his wife. He is not so
proud of his own golden girdle, as he is of his wife's wearing jewels of
gold. So that even of this you are the causes, who light the spark and
kindle up the flame. But what is more, it is not so great a sin in a woman
as in a man. Thou art ordained to regulate her; in every way thou claimest
to have the preeminence. Show her then in this also, that thou takes no
interest in this costliness of hers, by thine own apparel. It is more suitable
for a woman to adorn herself, than for a man. If then thou escape not the
temptation, how shall she escape it? They have moreover their share of
vainglory, but this is common to them with men. They are in a measure passionate,
and this again is common to them with men. But as to those things wherein
they excel, these are no longer common to them with men; their sanctity,
I mean, their fervency, their devotion, their love towards Christ. Wherefore
then, one may say, did Paul exclude them from the teacher's seat? And here
again is a proof how great a distance they were from the men, and that
the women of those days were great. For, tell me, while Paul was teaching,
or Peter, or those saints of old, had it been right that a woman should
intrude into the office? Whereas we have gone on till we have come so debased,
that it is worthy of question, why women are not teachers. So truly have
we come to the same weakness as they. These things I have said not from
any desire to elate them, but to shame ourselves, to chastise, and to admonish
us, that so we may resume the authority that belongs to us, not inasmuch
as we are greater in size, but because of our foresight, our protection
of them, and our virtue. For thus shall the body also be in the order which
befits it, when it has the best head to rule. And God grant that all, both
wives and husbands, may live according to His good pleasure, that we may
all in that terrible day be counted worthy to enjoy the lovingkindness
of our Master, and to attain those good things which are promised in Jesus
Christ our Lord, with whom to the Father, together with the Holy Ghost,
be glory, might, and honor, now and forever and ever. Amen.