Matthew Chapter 22, Verse 1-Mathew Chapter 22, Verse 14
"And Jesus answered and spake again1 in parables. The kingdom of
Heaven is like unto a certain king, which made a marriage2 for his son;
and sent forth his servants to call them which were bidden to the wedding;
and they would not come. Again, he sent forth other servants, saying, Tell
them which are bidden, I have prepared my dinner; my oxen and my fatlings
are killed, and all things are ready; come unto the marriage. But they
made light of it, and went their ways, one to his farm, another to his
merchandise: and the remnant took his servants, and entreated them spitefully,
and slew them."3
Seest thou both in the former parable and in this the difference between
the Son and the servants? Seest thou at once the great affinity between
both parables, and the great difference also? For this also indicates God's
long-suffering, and His great providential care, and the Jews' ingratitude.
But this parable hath something also more than the other. For it proclaims
beforehand both the casting out of the Jews, and the calling of the Gentiles;
and it indicates together with this also the strictness of the life required,
and how great the punishment appointed for the careless.
And well is this placed after the other. For since He had said, "It
shall be given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof," He declares
next to what kind of nation; and not this only, but He also again sets
forth His providential care towards the Jews as past utterance. For there
He appears before His crucifixion bidding them; but here even after He
is slain, He still urges them, striving to win them over. And when they
deserved to have suffered the most grievous punishment, then He both presses
them to the marriage, and honors them with the highest honor. And see how
both there He calls not the Gentiles first, but the Jews, and here again.
But as there, when they would not receive Him, but even slew Him when He
was come, then He gave away the vineyard; thus here too, when they were
not willing to be present at the marriage, then He called others.
What then could be more ungrateful than they, when being bidden to a
marriage they rush away? For who would not choose to come to a marriage,
and that a King's marriage, and of a King making a marriage for a Son?
And wherefore is it called a marriage? one may say. That thou mightest
learn God's tender care, His yearning towards us, the cheerfulness of the
state of things, that there is nothing sorrowful there, nor sad, but all
things are full of spiritual joy: Therefore also John calls Him a bridegroom,
therefore Paul again saith, "For I have espoused you to one husband;"4
and, "This is a great mystery, but I speak concerning Christ and the Church."5
Why then is not the bride said to be espoused to Him, but to the Son?
Because she that is espoused to the Son, is espoused to the Father. For
it is indifferent in Scripture that the one or the other should be said,
because of the identity6 of the substance.
Hereby He proclaimed the resurrection also. For since in what went before
He had spoken of the death, He shows that even after the death, then is
the marriage, then the bridegroom.
But not even so do these become better men nor more gentle, than which
what can be worse? For this again is a third accusation. The first that
they killed the prophets; then the son; afterwards that even when they
had slain Him, and were bidden unto the marriage of Him that was slain,
by the Very one that was slain, they come not, but feign excuses, yokes
of oxen, and pieces of ground, and wives. And yet the excuses seem to be
reasonable; but hence we learn, though the things which hinder us be necessary,
to set the things spiritual at a higher price than all.
And He not suddenly, but a long time before. For, "Tell," He saith,
"them that are bidden;" and again, "Call them that were bidden;" which
circumstance makes the charge against them heavier. And when were they
bidden? By all the prophets; by John again; for unto Christ he would pass
all on, saying, "He must increase, I must decrease;"7 by the Son Himself
again, "Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will
refresh you;"8 and again, "If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and
But not by words only, but also by actions did He bid them, after His
ascension by Peter, and those with him. "For He that wrought effectually
in Peter," it is said, "to the apostleship of the circumcision, was mighty
also in me towards the Gentiles."10
For since on seeing the Son, they were wroth and slew Him, He bids them
again by His servants. And unto what cloth He bid them? Unto labors, and
toils, and sweat? Nay but unto pleasure. For, "My oxen," He saith, "and
my fatlings are killed." See how complete His banquet? how great His munificence.
And not even this shamed them, but the more long-suffering He showed,
so much the more were they hardened. For not for press of business, but
from "making light of they did not come.
"How then do some bring forward marriages, others yokes of oxen? these
things surely are of want of leisure."
By no means, for when spiritual things call us, there is no press of
business that has the power of necessity.
And to me they seem moreover to make use of these excuses, putting forward
these things as cloke for their negligence, And not this only is the grievous
thing, that they came not, but also that which is a far more violent and
furious act, to have even beaten them that came, and to have used them
despitefully, and to have slain them; this is worse than the former. For
those others came, demanding produce and fruits, and were slain; but these,
bidding them to the marriage of Him that had been slain by them, and these
again are murdered.
What is equal to this madness? This Paul also was laying to their charge,
when he said, "Who both killed the Lord, and their own prophets, and have
Moreover, that they may not say, "He is an adversary of God, and therefore
we do not come," hear what they say who are bidding them; that it is the
father who is making the marriage, and that it is He who is bidding them.
What then did He after these things? Since they were not willing to
come, yea and also slew those that came unto them; He burns up their cities,
and sent His armies and slew them.
And these things He saith, declaring beforehand the things that took
place under Vespasian and Titus, and that they provoked the father also,
by not believing in Him; it is the father at any rate who was avenging.
And for this reason let me add, not straightway after Christ was slain
did the capture take place, but after forty years, that He might show His
long suffering, when they had slain Stephen, when they had put James to
death, when they had spitefully entreated the apostles.
Seest thou the truth of the event, and its quickness? For while John
was yet living, and many other of them that were with Christ, these things
came to pass, and they that had heard these words were witnesses of the
See then care utterable. He had planted a vineyard; He had done all
things, and finished; when His servants had been put to death, He sent
other servants; when those had been slain, He sent the son; and when He
was put to death, He bids them to the marriage. They would not come, After
this He sends other servants, and they slew these also.
Then upon this He slays them, as being incurably diseased. For that
they were incurably diseased, was proved not by their acts only, but by
the fact, that even when harlots and publicans had believed, they did these
things. So that, not by their own crimes alone, but also from what others
were able to do aright, these men are condemned,
But if any one should say, that not then were they out of the Gentiles
called, I mean, when the apostles had been beaten and had suffered ten
thousand things, but straightway after the resurrection (for then He said
to them, "Go ye and make disciples of all nations."12 We would say, that
both before the crucifixion, and after the crucifixion, they addressed
themselves to them first. For both before the crucifixion, He saith to
them, "Go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel;"13 and after the crucifixion,
so far from forbidding, He even commanded them to address themselves to
the Jews. For though He said, "Make disciples of all nations," yet when
on the point of ascending into Heaven, He declared that unto those first
they were to address themselves; For, "ye shall receive power," saith He,
"after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you, and ye shall be witnesses
unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and unto the uttermost part
of the earth;"14 and Paul again, "He that wrought effectually in Peter
to the apostleship of the circumcision, was mighty in me also toward the
Gentiles."15 Therefore the apostles also went first unto the Jews, and
when they had tarried a long time in Jerusalem, and then had been driven
away by them, in this way they were scattered abroad unto the Gentiles.
2. And see thou even herein His bounty; "As many as ye shall find,"
saith He, "bid to the marriage. For before this, as I said, they addressed
themselves both to Jews and Greeks, tarrying for the most part in Judaea;
but since they continued to lay plots against them, hear Paul interpreting
this parable, and saying thus, "It was necessary that the word of God should
first have been spoken to you, but since ye judge yourselves unworthy,
lo, we turn to the Gentiles.16
Therefore Christ also saith, "The wedding is ready, but they which were
bidden were not worthy."
He knew this indeed even before, but that He might leave them no pretext
of a shameless sort of contradiction, although He knew it, to them first
He both came and sent, both stopping their mouths, and teaching us to fulfill
all our parts, though no one should derive any profit.
Since then they were not worthy, go ye, saith He, into the highways,
and as many as ye shall find, bid; both the common sort, and the outcasts.
For because He had said m every way.17 "The harlots and publicans shall
inherit heaven;" and, "The first shall be last, and the last first;" He
shows thai justly do these things come to pass; which more than anything
stung the Jews, and goaded them far more grievously than their overthrow,
to see those from the Gentiles brought into their privileges, and into
far greater than theirs.
Then in order that not even these should put confidence in their faith
alone, He discourses unto them also concerning the judgment to be passed
upon wicked actions; to them that have not yet believed, of coming unto
Him by faith, and to them that have believed, of care with respect to their
life. For the garment is life and practice.
And yet the calling was of grace; wherefore then doth He take a strict
account? Because although to be called and to be cleansed was of grace,
yet, when called and clothed in clean garments, to continue keeping them
so, this is of the diligence of them that are called.
The being called was not of merit, but of grace. It was fit therefore
to make a return for the grace, and not to show forth such great wickedness
after the honor. "But I have not enjoyed," one may say, "so much advantage
as the Jews." Nay, but thou hast enjoyed far greater benefits. For what
things were being prepared for them throughout all their time, these thou
hast received at once, not being worthy. Wherefore Paul also saith, "And
that the Gentiles might glorify God for His mercy."18 For what things were
due to them, these thou hast received.
Wherefore also great is the punishment appointed for them that have
been remiss. For as they did despite by not coming, so also thou by thus
sitting down with a corrupt life. For to come in with filthy garments is
this namely, to depart hence having one's life impure; wherefore also he
Seest thou how, although the fact was so manifest, He doth not punish
at once, until he himself, who has sinned, has passed the sentence? For
by having nothing to reply he condemned himself, and so is taken away to
the unutterable torments.
For do not now, on hearing of darkness, suppose he is punished by this,
by sending into a place where there is no light only, but where" there
is "also" weeping and gnashing of teeth."19 And this He saith, indicating
the intolerable pains.
Hear ye, as many as having partaken of the mysteries, and having been
present at the marriage, clothe your souls with filthy deeds Hear whence
ye were called.
From the highway. Being what? Lame and halt in soul, which is a much
more grievous thing than the mutilation of the body. Reverence the love
of Him, who called you, and let no one continue to have filthy garments,
but let each of you busy himself about the clothing of your soul.
Hear, ye women; hear, ye men; we need not these garments that are bespangled
with gold, that adam our outward parts,20 but those others, that adorn
the inward. Whilst we have these former, it is difficult to put on those
latter. It is not possible at the same time to deck both soul and body.
It is not possible at the same time both to serve mammon, and to obey Christ
as we ought.
Let us put off us therefore this grievous tyranny. For neither if any
one were to adorn thy house by hanging it with golden curtains, and were
to make thee sit there in rags, naked, wouldest thou endure it with meekness.
But lo, now thou doest this to thyself, decking the house of thy soul,
I mean the body, with curtains beyond number, but leaving the soul itself
to sit in rags. Knowest thou not that the king ought to be adorned more
than the city? so therefore while for the city hangings are prepared of
linen, for the king there is a purple robe and a diadem. Even so do thou
wrap the body with a much meaner dress, but the mind do thou clothe in
purple, and put a crown on it, and set it on a high and conspicuous chariot.
For now thou art doing the opposite, decking the city in various ways,
but suffering the king, the mind, to be dragged bound after the brute passions.
Rememberest thou not, that thou art bidden to a marriage, and to God's
marriage? Considerest thou not how the soul that is bidden ought to enter
into those chambers, clad, and decked with fringes of gold.
3. Wilt thou that I show thee them that are clad thus, them that have
on a marriage garment?
Call to mind those holy persons, of whom I discoursed to you of late,
them that wear garments of hair, them that dwell in the deserts. These
above all are the wearers of the garments of that wedding; this is evident
from hence, that how many soever purple robes thou weft to give them, they
would not choose to receive them; but much as a king, if any one were to
take the beggar's rags, and exhort him to put them on, would abhor the
clothing, so would those persons also his purple robe. And from no other
cause have they this feeling, but because of knowing the beauty of their
own raiment. Therefore even that purple robe they spurn like the spider's
web. For these things hath their sackcloth taught them; for indeed they
are far more exalted and more glorious than the very king who reigns.
And if thou wert able to open the doors of the mind, and to look upon
their soul, and all their ornaments within, surely thou wouldest fall down
upon the earth, not bearing the glory of their beauty, and the splendor
of those garments, and the lightning brightness of their conscience.
For we could tell also of men of old, great and to be admired; but since
visible examples lead on more those of grosset souls, therefore do I send
you even to the tabernacles of those holy persons. For they have nothing
sorrowful, but as if in heaven they had pitched their tents, even so are
they encamped far off the wearisome things of this present life, in campaign
against the devils; and as in choirs, so do they war against him. Therefore
I say, they have fixed their tents, and have fled from cities, and markets,
and houses. For he that warreth cannot sit in a house, but he must make
his habitation of a temporary kind, as on the point of removing straightway,
and so dwell. Such are all those persons, contrary to us. For we indeed
live not as in a camp, but as in a city at peace.
For who in a camp ever lays foundation, and builds himself a house,
which he is soon after to leave? There is not one; but should any one attempt
it, he is put to death as a traitor. Who in a camp buys acres of land,
and makes for himself trades? There is not one, and very reasonably. "For
thou art come here," they would say, "to fight, not to traffic; why then
dost thou trouble thyself about the place, which in a little time thou
wilt leave? When we are gone away to our country, do these things."
The same do I now say to thee also. When we have removed to the city
that is. above, do these things: or rather thou wilt have no need of labors
there; after that the king will do all things for thee. But here it is
enough to dig a ditch round only, and to fix a palisade, but of building
houses there is no need.
Hear what was the life of the Scythians, that lived in their wagons,
such, as they say, are the habits of the shepherd tribes. So ought Christians
to live; to go about the world, warring against the devil, rescuing the
captives held in subjection by him, and to be in freedom from all worldly
Why preparest thou a house, O man, that thou mayest bind thyself more?
Why dost thou bury a treasure, and invite the enemy against thyself? Why
dost thou compass thyself with walls, and prepare a prison for thyself?
But if these things seem to thee to be hard, let us go away unto the
tents of those men, that by their deeds we may learn the easiness thereof.
For they having set up huts, if they must depart from these, depart like
as soldiers, having left their camp in peace. For so likewise are they
encamped, or rather even much more beautifully.
For indeed it is more pleasant to behold a desert containing huts of
monks in close succession, than soldiers stretching the canvas in a camp,
and fixing spears, and suspending from the point of the spears saffron
garments,21 and a multitude of men having heads of brass, and the bosses
of the shields glistening much, and men armed all throughout with steel.
and royal courts hastily made, and ground levelled far, and men dining
and piping. For neither is this spectacle so delightful as that of which
I now speak.
For if we were to go away into the wilderness, and look at the tents
of Christ's soldiers, we shall see not canvas stretched, neither points
of spears, nor golden garments making a royal pavilion; but like as if
any one upon an earth much larger than this earth, yea infinite, had stretched
out many heavens, strange and awful would be the sight he showed; even
so may one see here.
For in nothing are their lodging-places in a condition inferior to the
heavens; for the angels lodge with them, and the Lord of the angels. For
if they came to Abraham, a man having a wife, and bringing up children,
because they saw him hospitable; when they find much more abundant virtue,
and a man delivered from the body, and in the flesh disregarding the flesh,
much more do they tarry there, and celebrate the choral feast that becomes
them. For there is moreover a table amongst them pure from all covetousness,
and full of self-denial.
No streams of blood are amongst them, nor cutting up of flesh, nor heaviness
of head, nor dainty cooking, neither are there unpleasing smells of meat
amongst them, nor disagreeable smoke, neither runnings and tumults, and
disturbances, and wearisome clamors; but bread and water, the latter from
a pure fountain, the former from honest labor. But if any time they should
be minded to feast more sumptuously, their sumptuousness consists of fruits,
and greater is the pleasure there than at royal tables. There is no fear
there, or trembling; no ruler accuses, no wife provokes, no child casts
into sadness, no disorderly mirth dissipates, no multitude of flatterers
puffs up; but the table is an angel's table free from all such turmoil.
And for a couch they have grass only beneath them, like as Christ did
when making a dinner in the wilderness. And many of them do this, not being
even under shelter, but for a roof they have heaven, and the moon instead
of the light of a candle, not wanting oil, nor one to attend to it; on
them alone does it shine worthily from on high.
4. This table even angels from heaven beholding are delighted and pleased.
For if over one sinner that repenteth they rejoice, over so many just men
imitating them, what will they not do? There are not master and slave;
all are slaves, all free men. And do not think the saying to be a dark
proverb, for they are indeed slaves one of another, and masters one of
They have no occasion to be in sadness when evening has overtaken them,
as many men feel, revolving the anxious thoughts that spring from the evils
of the day. They have no occasion after their supper to be careful about
robbers, and to shut the doors, and to put bars against them, neither to
dread the other ills, of which many are afraid, extinguishing their candles
with strict care, lest a spark anywhere should set the house on fire.
And their conversation again is full of the whereof we discourse, that
are nothing to us; such a one is made governor, such a one has ceased to
be governor; such a one is dead, and another has succeeded to the inheritance,
and all such like, but always about the things to come do they speak and
seek wisdom; and as though dwelling in another world, as though they had
migrated unto heaven itself, as living there, even so all their conversation
is about the things there, about Abraham's bosom, about the crowns of the
saints, about the choiring with Christ; and of things present they have
neither any memory nor thought, but like as we should not deign to speak
at all of what the ants do in their holes and clefts; so neither do they
of what we do; but about the King that is above, about the war in which
they are engaged, about the devil's crafts, about the good deeds which
the saints have achieved.
Wherein therefore are we different from ants, when compared with them?
For like as they care for the things of the body, so also do we; and would
it were for these alone: but now it is even for things far worse. For not
for necessary things only do we care like them, but also for things superfluous.
For those insects pursue a business free from all blame, but we follow
after all covetousness, and not even the ways of ants do we imitate, but
the ways of wolves, but the ways of leopards, or rather we are even worse
than these. For to them nature has assigned that they should be thus fed,
but us God hath honored with speech, and a sense of equity,22 and we are
become worse than the wild beasts.
And whereas we are worse than the brutes, those men are equal to the
angels, being strangers and pilgrims as to the things here; and all things
in them are made different from us, clothing, and food, and house, and
shoes, and speech. And if any one were to hear them conversing and us,
then he would know full well, how they indeed are citizens of heaven, but
we are not worthy so much as of the earth.
So that therefore, when any one invested with rank is come unto them,
then is all inflated pride found utterly vain. For the laborer there, and
he that hath no experience of worldly affairs, sits near him that is a
commander of troops, and prides himself on his authority, upon the grass,
upon a mean cushion. For there are none to extol him, none to puff him
up; but the same result takes place, as if any one were to go to a goldsmith,
and a garden of roses, for he receives some brightness from the gold and
from the roses; so they too, gaining a little from the splendor of these,
are delivered from their former arrogance. And like as if any were to go
upon a high place, though he be exceedingly short, he appears high; so
these too, coming unto their exalted minds, appear like them, so long as
they abide there, but when they are gone down are abased again, on descending
from that height.
A king is nothing amongst them, a governor is nothing; but like as we,
when children are playing at these things, laugh; so do they also utterly
spurn the inflamed pride of them who strut without. And this is evident
from hence, that if any one would give them a kingdom to possess in security,
they would never take it; yet they would take it, unless their thoughts
were upon what is greater than it, unless they accounted the thing to be
but for a season.
What then? Shall we not go over unto blessedness so great? Shall we
not come unto these angels; shall we not receive clean garments, and join
in the ceremonies of this wedding feast; but shall we continue begging,
in no respect in a better condition than the poor in the streets, or rather
in a state far worse and more wretched? For much worse than these are they
that are rich in evil ways, and it is better to beg than to spoil, for
the one hath excuse, but the other brings punishment; and the beggar in
no degree offends God, but this other both men and God; and undergoes the
labors of rapine, but all the enjoyment thereof other men often reap.
Knowing then these things, let us lay aside all covetousness, and covet
the things above, with great earnestness "taking the kingdom by force."23
For it cannot be, it cannot be that any one who is remiss should enter
But God grant that we all having become earnest, and watchful may attain
thereto, by the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to
whom be glory and might, world without end. Amen.
1 [The order here is slightly varied, and "unto them"
is omitted. With these exceptions the entire passage is in verbal agreement
with the received text.-R.]2.
2 [R. V. "marriage feast".]3.
3 [Verses 7-14 do not appear in the Greek text of Migne's
edition, but are added in the Oxford translation, and in Field's Greek
4 2 Cor. xi. 2.
5 Eph. v. 32.
7 John iii. 30 ["Refresh" is the rendering of the Greek
term answering to "give rest" in the English versions.-R.]
8 Matt. xi. 28. ["Refresh" is the rendering of the Greek
term answering to "give rest" in the English versions.-R.]
9 John vii. 37.
10 Gal. ii. 8. [R. V., "wrought for" twice; the Greek
verb is the same in both clauses.-R.]
11 po/sh h9 pandaisi/a.
12 1Thess. ii. 15. [R. V., "and drove out us."]
13 Matt. xxviii. 19.
14 Matt. x. 6.
15 Acts i. 8.
16 Gal. ii. 8. [Comp. note 7, p. 421.]
17 Acts xiii. 46. [slightly abridged.]
18 Or, "repeatedly."
19 Rom. xv. 9.
20 Matt. xxii. 13.
21 [The clause in italics is not found in the Mss. collated
by Field, but occurs in the Benedictine edition.-R.]
22 fa/rh krokwta/.