Matthew Chapter 18.
"Then came Peter to Him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my brother
sin against me, and I forgive him? till seven times? Jesus saith unto him,
I say not unto thee, Until seven times. but, Until seventy times seven."1
Peter supposed he was saying something great, wherefore also as aiming
at greatness he added, "Until seven times?" For this thing, saith he, which
Thou hast commanded to do, how often shall I do? For if he forever sins,
but forever when reproved repents, how often dost thou command us to bear
with this man? For with regard to that other who repents not, neither acknowledges
his own faults, Thou hast set a limit, by saying, "Let him be to thee as
the heathen and the publican;" but to this no longer so, but Thou hast
commanded to accept him.
How often then ought I to bear with him, being told his faults, and
repenting? Is it enough for seven times?
What then saith Christ, the good God, who is loving towards man? "I
say not unto thee, until seven times, but, until seventy times seven,"
not setting a number here, but what is infinite and perpetual and forever.
For even as ten thousand times signifies often, so here too. For by saying,
"The barren hath borne seven,"2 the Scripture means many. So that He hath
not limited the forgiveness by a number, but hath declared that it is to
be perpetual and forever.
This at least He indicated by the parable that is put after. For that
He might not seem to any to enjoin great things and hard to bear, by saying,
"Seventy times seven," He added this parable, at once both leading them
on to what He had said, and putting down him who was priding himself upon
this, and showing the act was not grievous, but rather very easy. Therefore
let me add, He brought forward His own love to man, that by the comparison,
as He saith, thou mightest learn, that though thou forgive seventy times
seven, though thou continually pardon thy neighbor for absolutely all his
sins, as a drop of water to an endless sea, so much, or rather much more,
doth thy love to man come short in comparison of the boundless goodness
of God, of which thou standest in need, for that thou art to be judged,
and to give an account.
Wherefore also He went on to say, "The Kingdom of Heaven is likened
unto a certain king, which would take account of his servants.3 And when
he had begun to reckon, one was brought unto him, which owed him ten thousand
talents. But forasmuch as he had not to pay,4 he commanded him to be sold,
and his wife, and his children, and all that he had."5
Then after this man had enjoyed the benefit of mercy, he went out, and
"took by the throat his fellow-servant, which owed him an hundred pence;"6
and having by these doings l moved his lord, he caused him to cast him
again into prison, until he should pay off the whole.
Seest thou how great the difference between sins against man and against
God? As great as between ten thousand talents, and a hundred pence, or
rather even much more. And this arises both from the difference of the
persons, and the constant succession of our sins. For when a man looks
at us, we stand off and shrink from sinning: but when God sees us every
day, we do not forbear, but do and speak all things without fear.
But not hereby alone, but also from the benefit and from the honor of
which we have partaken, our sins become more grievous.
And if ye are desirous to learn how our sins against Him are ten thousand
talents. or rather even much more, I will try to show it briefly. But I
fear test to them that are inclined to wickedness, and love continually
to sin, I should furnish still greater security, or should drive the meeker
sort to despair, and they should repeat that saying of the disciples, "who
can be saved?"7
Nevertheless for all that I will speak, that I may make those that attend
more safe, and more meek. For they that are incurably diseased, and past
feeling, even without these words of mine, do not depart from their own
carelessness, and wickedness; and if even from hence they derive greater
occasion for contempt, the fault is not in what is said, but in their insensibility;
since what is said surely is enough both to restrain those that attend
to it, and to prick their hearts; and the meeker sort, when they see on
the one hand the greatness of their sins, and learn also on the other hand
the power of repentance, will cleave to it the more, wherefore it is needful
I will speak then, and will set forth our sins, both wherein we offend
against God, and wherein against men, and I will set forth not each person's
own, but what are common; but his own let each one join to them after that
from his conscience.
And I will do this, having first set forth the good deeds of God to
us. What then are His good deeds? He created us when we were not, and made
all things for our sakes that are seen, Heaven, sea, air, all that in them
is, living creatures, plants, seeds; for we must needs speak briefly for
the boundless ocean of the works. Into us alone of all that are on earth
He breathed a living soul such as we have, He planted a garden, He gave
a help-meet, He set us over all the brutes, He crowned us with glory and
After that, when man had been unthankful towards his benefactor, He
vouchsafed unto him a greater gift.
2. For look not to this only, that He cast him out of paradise, but
mark also the gain that arose from thence. For after having cast him out
of paradise, and having wrought those countless good works, and having
accomplished His various dispensations, He sent even His own Son for the
sake of them that had been benefited by Him and were hating Him, and opened
Heaven to us, and unfolded paradise itself, and made us sons, the enemies,
Wherefore it were even seasonable now to say, "O the depth of the riches
both of the wisdom and knowledge of God!"8 And He gave us also a baptism
of the remission of sins, and a deliverance from vengeance, and an inheritance
of a kingdom, and He promised numberless good things on our doing what
is right, and stretched forth His hand, and shed abroad His Spirit into
What then? After so many and such great blessings, what ought to be
our disposition; should we indeed, even if each day we died for Him who
so loves us, make due recompense, or rather should we repay the smallest
portion of the debt? By no means, for moreover even this again is turned
to our advantage.
How then are we disposed, whose disposition ought to be like this? Each
day we insult His law. But be ye not angry, if I let loose my tongue against
them that sin, for not you only will I accuse, but myself also.
Where then would ye that I should begin? With the slaves, or with the
free? with them that serve in the army, or with private persons? with the
rulers, or with the subjects? with the women, or with the men? with the
aged men, or with the young? with what age? with what race? with what rank?
with what pursuit?
Would ye then that I should make the beginning with them that serve
as soldiers? What sin then do not these commit every day, insulting, reviling,
frantic, making a gain of other men's calamities, being like wolves, never
clear from offenses, unless one might say the sea too was without waves.
What passion doth not trouble them? what disease cloth not lay siege to
For to their equals they show a jealous disposition, and they envy,
and seek after vainglory; and to those that are subject to them, their
disposition is covetous; but to them that have suits, and run unto them
as to a harbor, their conduct is that of enemies and perjured persons.
How many robberies are there with them! How many frauds! How many false
accusations, and meannesses! how many servile flatteries!
Come then, let us apply in each case the law of Christ. "He that saith
to his brother, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.9 He that hath
looked on a woman to lust after her, hath already committed adultery with
her.10 Unless one humble himself as the little child, he shall not enter
into the Kingdom of Heaven."11
But these even study haughtiness, becoming towards them that are subject
to them, and are delivered into their hands, and who tremble at them, and
are afraid of them, more fierce than a wild beast; for Christ's sake doing
nothing, but all things for the belly, for money, for vainglory.
Can one indeed reckon up in words the trespass of their actions? What
should one say of their decisions, their laughter, their unseasonable discourses,
their filthy language? But about covetousness one cannot so much as speak.
For like as the monks on the mountains know not even what covetousness
is, so neither do these; but in an opposite way to them, For they indeed,
because of being far removed from the disease, know not the passion, but
these, by reason of being exceedingly intoxicated with it, have not so
much as a perception how great the evil is. For this vice hath so thrust
aside virtue and tyrannises, that it is not accounted so much as a heavy
charge with those madmen.
But will ye, that we leave these, and go to others of a gentler kind?
Come then, let us examine the race of workmen and artisans. For these above
all seem to live by honest labors, and the sweat of their own brow. But
these too, when they do not take heed to themselves, gather to themselves
many evils from hence. For the dishonesty that arises from buying and selling
they bring into the work of honest labor, and add oaths, and perjuries,
and falsehoods to their covetousness often, and are taken up with worldly
things only, and continue riveted to the earth; and while they do all things
that they may get money, they do not take much heed that they may impart
to the needy, being always desirous to increase their goods. What should
one say of the revilings that are uttered touching such matters, the insults,
the loans, the usurious gains, the bargains full of much mean trafficking,
the shameless buyings and sellings.
3. But will ye that we leave these too, and go to others who seem to
be more just? Who then are they? They that are possessed of lands, and
reap the wealth that springs from the earth. And what can be more unjust
than these? For if any one were to examine how they treat their wretched
and toil-worn laborers, he will see them to be more cruel than savages.
For upon them that are pining with hunger, and toiling throughout all their
life, they both impose constant and intolerable payments, and lay on them
laborious burdens, and like asses or mules, or rather like stones, do they
treat their bodies, allowing them not so much as to draw breath a little,
and when the earth yields, and when it doth not yield, they alike wear
them out, and grant them no indulgence. And what can be more pitiable than
this, when after having labored throughout the whole winter, and being
consumed with frost and rain, and watchings, they go away with their hands
empty, yea moreover in debt, and fearing and dreading more that this famine
and shipwreck, the torments of the overlookers,12 and their dragging them
about, and their demands, and their imprisonments, and the services from
which no entreaty can deliver them!
Why should one speak of the merchandise which they make of them, the
sordid gains which they gain by them, by their labors and their sweat filling
winepresses, and wine vats, but not suffering them to take home so much
as a small measure, but draining off the entire fruits into the casks of
their wickedness, and flinging to them for this a little money?
And new kinds of usuries also do they devise, and not lawful even according
to the laws of the heathens, and they frame contracts for loans full of
many a curse. For not the hundredth part of the sum, but the half of the
sum they press for and exact; and this when he of whom it is exacted has
a wife, is bringing up children, is a human being, and is filling their
threshing floor, and their wine-press by his own toils.
But none of these things do they consider. Wherefore now it were seasonable
to bring forward the prophet and say, "Be astonished, O Heaven, and be
horribly afraid, O earth,"13 to what great brutality hath the race of man
been madly carried away!14
But these things I say, not blaming crafts, nor husbandry, nor military
service,15 but ourselves. Since Cornelius also was a centurion, and Paul
a worker in leather, and after his preaching practised his craft, and David
was a king, and Job enjoyed the possession of land and of large revenues,
and there was no hindrance hereby to any of these in the way of virtue.
Bearing in mind all these things, and considering the ten thousand talents,
let us at least hence hasten to remit to our neighbors their few and trifling
debts. For we too have an account to give of the commandments wherewith
we have been trusted, and we are not able to pay all, no not whatever we
may do. Therefore God hath given us a way to repayment both ready and easy,
and which is able to cancel all these things, I mean, not to be revengeful.
In order then that we may learn this well, let us hear the whole parable,
going on regularly through it. "For there was brought unto Him," it saith,
"one which owed ten thousand talents, and when he had not to pay, He commanded
him to be sold, and his wife, and his children." Wherefore, I pray thee?
Not of cruelty, nor of inhumanity (for the loss came back again upon himself,
for she too was a slave), but of unspeakable tenderness.
For it is His purpose to alarm him by this threat, that He might bring
him to supplication, not that he should be sold. For if He had done it
for this intent, He would not have consented to his request, neither would
He have granted the favor.
Wherefore then did He not do this, nor forgive the debt before the account?
Desiring to teach him, from how many obligations He is delivering him,
that in this way at least he might become more mild towards his fellow
servant. For even if when he had learnt the weight of his debt, and the
greatness of the forgiveness, he continued taking his fellow-servant by
the throat; if He had not disciplined him beforehand with such medicines,
to what length of cruelty might he not have gone?
What then saith the other? "Have patience with me, and I will pay thee
all. And his Lord s was moved with compassion, and loosed him, and forgave
him the debt."16
Seest thou again surpassing benevolence? The servant asked only for
delay and putting off the time, but He gave more than he asked, remission
and forgiveness of the entire debt. For it had been his will to give it
even from the first, but he did not desire the gift to be his only, but
also to come of this man's entreaty, that he might not go away uncrowned.
For that the whole was of him, although this other fell down to him and
prayed, the motive of the forgiveness showed, for "moved with compassion"
he forgave him. But still even so he willed that other also to seem to
contribute something, that he might not be exceedingly covered with shame,
and that he being schooled in his own calamities, might be indulgent to
4. Up to this point then this man was good and acceptable; for he confessed,
and promised to pay the debt, and fell down before him, and entreated,
and condemned his own sins, and knew the greatness of the debt. But the
sequel is unworthy of his former deeds. For going out straightway, not
after a long time but straightway, having the benefit fresh17 upon him,
he abused to wickedness the gift, even the freedom bestowed on him by his
For, "he found one of his fellow-servants, which owed him an hundred
pence, and took him by the throat, saying, Pay me what thou owest."18
Seest thou the master's benevolence? Seest thou the servant's cruelty?
Hear, ye who do these things for money. For if for sins we must not do
so, much more not for money.
What then saith the other? "Have patience with me, and I will pay thee
all."19 But he did not regard even the words by which he had been saved
(for he himself on saying this was delivered from the ten thousand talents),
and did not recognize so much as the harbor by which he escaped shipwreck;
the gesture of supplication did not remind him of his master's kindness,
but he put away from him all these things, from covetousness and cruelty
and revenge, and was more fierce than any wild beast, seizing his fellow-servant
by the throat.
What doest thou, O man? perceivest thou not, thou art making the demand
upon thyself, thou an thrusting the sword into thyself, and revoking the
sentence and the gift? But none of these things did he consider, neither
did he remember his own state, neither did he yield; although the entreaty
was not for equal objects.
For the one besought for ten thousand talents, the other for a hundred
pence; the one his fellow-servant, the other his lord; the one received
entire forgiveness, the other asked for delay, and not so much as this
did he give him, for "he cast him into prison."
"But when his fellow-servants saw it, they accused him to their lord."
Not even to men is this well-pleasing, much less to God. They therefore
who did not owe, partook of the grief.
What then saith their lord? "O thou wicked servant, I forgave thee
all that debt, because thou desiredst20 me; shouldest not thou also have
had compassion, even as I had pity on thee?"21
See again the lord's gentleness. He pleads with him, and excuses himself,
being on the point of revoking his gift; or rather, it was not he that
revoked it, but the one who had received it. Wherefore He saith, "I forgave
thee all that debt, because thou desiredst me; shouldest not thou also
have had compassion on thy fellow-servant?" For even if the thing cloth
seem to thee hard; yet shouldest thou have looked to the gain, which hath
been, which is to be. Even if the injunction be galling, thou oughtest
to consider the reward; neither that he hath grieved thee, but that thou
hast provoked God, whom by mere prayer thou hast reconciled. But if even
so it be a galling thing to thee to become friends with him who hath grieved
thee, to fall into hell is far more grievous; and if thou hadst set this
against that, then thou wouldest have known that to forgive is a much lighter
And whereas, when he owed ten thousand talents, he called him not wicked,
neither reproached him, but showed mercy on him; when he had become harsh
to his fellow-servant, then he saith, "O thou wicked servant."
Let us hearken, the covetous, for even to us is the word spoken. Let
us hearken also, the merciless, and the cruel, for not to others are we
cruel, but to ourselves. When then thou art minded to be revengeful, consider
that against thyself art thou revengeful, not against another; that thou
art binding up thine own sins, not thy neighbors. For as to thee, whatsoever
thou mayest do to this man, thou doest as a man and in the present life,
but God not so, but more mightily will He take vengeance on thee, and with
the vengeance hereafter.
"For He delivered him over till he should pay that which was due,"
that is, for ever; for he will never repay. For since thou art not become
better by the kindness shown thee, it remains that by vengeance thou be
And yet, "The graces and the gifts are without repentance,"22 but wickedness
has had such power as to set aside even this law. What then can be a more
grievous thing than to be revengeful, when it appears to overthrow such
and so great a gift of God.
And he did not merely "deliver" him, but "was wroth." For when he commanded
him to be sold, his were not the words of wrath (therefore neither did
he do it), but a very great occasion for benevolence; but now the sentence
is of much indignation, and vengeance, and punishment.
What then means the parable? "So likewise shall my Father do also
unto you," He saith, "if ye from your hearts forgive not every one
his brother their trespasses."23
He saith not "your Father," but "my Father." For it is not meet for
God to be called the Father of such a one, who is so wicked and malicious.
5. Two things therefore doth He here require, both to condemn ourselves
for our sins, and to forgive others; and the former for the sake of the
latter, that this may become more easy (for he who considers his own sins
is more indulgent to his fellow-servant); and not merely to forgive with
the lips, but from the heart.
Let us not then thrust the sword into ourselves by being revengeful.
For what grief hath he who hath grieved thee inflicted upon thee, like
thou wilt work unto thyself by keeping thine anger in mind, and drawing
upon thyself the sentence from God to condemn thee? For if indeed thou
art watchful, and keepest thyself under control, the evil will come round
upon his head, and it will be he that will suffer harm; but if thou shouldest
continue indignant, and displeased, then thyself wilt undergo the harm
not from him, but from thyself.
Say not then that he insulted thee, and slandered thee, and did unto
thee ills beyond number; for the more thou tellest, so much the more dost
thou. declare him a benefactor. For he hath given thee an opportunity to
wash away thy sins; so that the greater the injuries he hath done thee,
so much more is he become to thee a cause of a greater remission of sins.
For if we be willing, no one shall be able to injure us, but even our
enemies shall advantage us in the greatest degree. And why do I speak of
men? For what can be more wicked than the devil; yet nevertheless, even
hence have we a great opportunity of approving ourselves; and Job showeth
it. But if the devil hath become a cause of crowns, why art thou afraid
of a man as an enemy?
See then how much thou gainest, bearing meekly the spiteful acts of
thine enemies. First and greatest, deliverance from sins; secondly, fortitude
and patience; thirdly, mildness and benevolence; for he that knoweth not
how to be angry with them that grieve him, much more will he be ready to
serve them that love him. Fourthly, to be free from anger continually,
to which nothing can be equal. For of him that is free from anger, it is
quite clear that he is delivered also from the despondency hence arising,
and will not spend his life on vain labors and sorrows. For he that knows
not how to hate, neither cloth he know how to grieve, but will enjoy pleasure,
and ten thousand blessings. So that we punish ourselves by hating others,
even as on the other hand we benefit ourselves by loving them.
Besides all these things, thou wilt be an object of veneration even
to thy very enemies, though they be devils; or rather, thou wilt not so
much as have an enemy whilst thou art of such a disposition.
But what is greater than all, and first, thou gainest the favor of God.
Shouldest thou have sinned, thou wilt obtain pardon; shouldest thou have
done what is right, thou wilt obtain a greater confidence. Let us accomplish
therefore the hating no one, that God also may love us, that, though we
be in debt for ten thousand talents, He may have compassion and pity us.
But hast thou been injured by him? Pity him then, do not hate him; weep
and mourn, do not turn away from him. For thou art not the one that hath
offended against God, but he; but thou hast even approved thyself, if thou
endure it. Consider that Christ, when about to be crucified, rejoiced for
Himself, but wept for them that were crucifying Him. This ought to be our
disposition also; and the more we are injured, so much the more should
we lament for them that are injuring us. For to us many are the benefits
hence arising, but to them the opposites.
But did he insult thee, and strike thee before all? Then bath he disgraced
and dishonored himself before all, and hath opened the mouths of a thousand
accusers, and for thee hath he woven more crowns, and gathered for thee
many to publish thy forbearance.
But did he slander thee to others? And what is this? God is the one
that is to demand the account, not they that have heard this. For to himself
hath he added occasion of punishment, so that not only for his own sins
he should give account, but also of what he said of thee. And upon thee
hath he brought evil report with men, but he himself hath incurred evil
report with God.
And if these things are not sufficient for thee, consider that even
thy Lord24 was evil reported of both by Satan and by men, and that to those
most loved by Him; and His Only-Begotten the same again. Wherefore He said,
"If they have called the Master of the house Beelzebub, much more shall
they call them of His household."25
And that wicked demon did not only slander Him, but was also believed,
and slandered Him not in ordinary matters, but with the greatest reproaches
and accusations. For he affirmed Him to be possessed, and to be a deceiver,
and an adversary of God.
But hast thou also done good, and received evil? Nay, in respect of
this most of all lament and grieve for him that hath done the wrong, but
for thyself rather rejoice, because thou art become like God, "Who maketh
the sun to rise upon evil and good."26
But if to follow God is beyond thee, although to him that watcheth not
even this is hard; yet nevertheless if this seem to thee to be too great
for thee, come let us bring thee to thy fellow-servants, to Joseph, who
suffered countless things, and did good unto his brethren; to Moses, who
after their countless plots against him, prayed for them; to the blessed
Paul, who cannot so much as number what he suffered from them, and is willing
to be accursed for them; to Stephen, who is stoned, and entreating this
sin may be forgiven them. And having considered all these things, cast
away all anger, that God may forgive us also all our trespasses by the
grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, with whom to the Father
and the Holy Ghost be glory, might, honor, now and always, and world without
1 [R. V. margin, "seventy times and seven." There is
no difference of reading, but one of interpretation. Comp. Augustin, vol.
vi., p.107, Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers. Chrysostom does not indicate
which view he accepts.-R]
2 1 Sam. ii. 5.
3 [R. V., "make a reckoning."]
4 [R. V., "wherewith to pay."]
5 Matt. xviii. 23-25. [The textual variations are slight.-R.]
6 Matt. xviii. 28.
7 Matt. xix. 25. [Comp. Mark x. 26.]
8 Rom. xi. 33.
9 Matt. v.22.
10 Matt. v. 28.
11 Matt. xviii. 3. [Slightly altered.]
12 [e0pitro/pwn, "stewards," answering here to "overseers,"
in the worst sense.-R.]
13 Jer. ii. 12.
15 [ou0de\ a0grou/j occurs here in the Greek, but is
ignored by the translator; probably because the thoughts was implied in
16 ["The lord of that servant," according to our authorities;
The Homily varies.-R.]
17 Matt. xviii. 26, 27.
19 Matt. xviii. 28.
20 Matt. xviii. 29. [R. V. omits "all" in this verse,
with the best authorities. Probably taken from verse 26.-R.]
21 [R. V., "besoughtest."]
22 Matt. xviii. 32. [R. V., "have had mercy on thy fellow
servant, even as I had mercy on thee." The verb is the same in both clauses.
"On thy fellow servant," omitted here, is inserted in the comment.-R.]
23 Rom. xi. 29. [Freely cited.]
24 Matt. xviii. 35. [The best New Testament authorities
omit "their trespasses," which was readily introduced from similar passages.-R.]
26 Matt. x. 25.