1. Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness
to be tempted of the Devil.
2. And when He had fasted forty days and forty nights, He was afterward
Pseudo-Chrys.: The Lord being baptized by John with water, is led by
the Spirit into the wilderness to be baptized by the fire of temptation.
'Then,' i.e. when the voice of the Father had been given from heaven.
Chrys., Hom. 13: Whoever thou art then that after thy baptism sufferest
grievous trials, be not troubled thereat; for this thou receivedst arms,
to fight, not to sit idle. God does not hold all trial from us; first,
that we may feel that we are become stronger; secondly, that we may not
be puffed up by the greatness of the gifts we have received; thirdly, that
the Devil may have experience that we have entirely renounced him; fourthly,
that by it we may be made stronger; fifthly, that we may receive a sign
of the treasure entrusted to us; for the Devil would not come upon us to
tempt us, did he not see us advanced to greater honours.
Hilary: The Devil's snares are chiefly spread for the sanctified, because
a victory over the saints is more desired than over others.
Greg., Hom. in Ev., 16, 1: Some doubt what Spirit it was that led Jesus
into the desert, for that it is said after, "The Devil took him into the
holy city." But true and without question agreeable to the context is the
received opinion, that it was the Holy Spirit; that His own Spirit should
lead Him thither where the evil spirit should find Him and try Him.
Aug., de Trin., 4, 13: Why did He offer Himself to temptation? That
He might be our mediator in vanquishing temptation not by aid only, but
Pseudo-Chrys.: He was led by the Holy Spirit, not as an [p. 118] inferior
at the bidding of a greater. For we say, "led," not only of him who is
constrained by a stronger than he, but also of him who is induced by reasonable
persuasion; as Andrew "found his brother Simon, and brought him to Jesus."
Jerome: "Led," not against His will, or as a prisoner, but as by a desire
for the conflict.
Pseudo-Chrys.: The Devil comes against men to tempt them, but since
He could not come against Christ, therefore Christ came against the Devil.
Greg.: We should know that there are three modes of temptation; suggestion,
delight, and consent; and we when we are tempted commonly fall into delight
or consent, because being born of the sin of the flesh, we bear with us
whence we afford strength for the contest; but God who incarnate in the
Virgin's womb came into the world without sin, carried within Him nothing
of a contrary nature. He could then be tempted by suggestion; but the delight
of sin never gnawed His soul, and therefore all that temptation of the
Devil was without not within Him.
Chrys.: The Devil is wont to be most urgent with temptation, when he
sees us solitary; thus it was in the beginning he tempted the woman when
he found her without the man, and now too the occasion is offered to the
Devil, by the Saviour's being led into the desert.
Gloss. ap. Anselm: This desert is that between Jerusalem and Jericho,
where the robbers used to resort. It is called Hammaim, i.e. 'of blood,'
from the bloodshed which these robbers caused there; hence the man was
said (in the parable) to have fallen among robbers as he went down from
Jerusalem to Jericho, being a figure of Adam, who was overcome by daemons.
It was therefore fit that the place where Christ overcame the Devil, should
be the same in which the Devil in the parable overcomes man.
Pseudo-Chrys.: Not Christ only is led into the desert by the Spirit,
but also all the sons of God who have the Holy Spirit. For they are not
content to sit idle, but the Holy Spirit stirs them to take up some great
work, i.e. to go out into the desert where they shall meet with the Devil;
for there is no righteousness wherewith the Devil is pleased.
For all good is without the flesh and the world, because it is not according
to the will of the flesh and the world. To such a desert then all [p. 119]
the sons of God go out that they may be tempted.
For example, if you are unmarried, the Holy Spirit has by that led you
into the desert, that is, beyond the limits of the flesh and the world,
that you may be tempted by lust. But he who is married is unmoved by such
temptation. Let us learn that the sons of God are not tempted but when
they have gone forth into the desert, but the children of the Devil whose
life is in the flesh and the world are then overcome and obey; the good
man, having a wife is content; the bad, though he have a wife is not therewith
content, and so in all other things.
The children of the Devil go not out to the Devil that they may be tempted.
For what need that he should seek the strife who desires not victory? But
the sons of God having more confidence and desirous of victory, go forth
against him beyond the boundaries of the flesh. For this cause then Christ
also went out to the Devil, that He might be tempted of him.
Chrys.: But that you may learn how great a good is fasting, and what
a mighty shield against the Devil, and that after baptism you ought to
give attention to fasting and not to lusts, therefore Christ fasted, not
Himself needing it, but teaching us by His example.
Pseudo-Chrys.: And to fix the measure of our quadragesimal fast, be
fasted forty days and forty nights.
Chrys.: But He exceeded not the measure of Moses and Elias, lest it
should bring into doubt the reality of His assumption of the flesh.
Greg., Hom. in Ev., 16, 5: The Creator of all things took no food whatever
during forty days. We also, at the season of Lent as much as in us lies
afflict our flesh by abstinence. The number forty is preserved, because
the virtue of the decalogue is fulfilled in the books of the holy Gospel;
and ten taken four times amounts to forty.
Or, because in this mortal body we consist of four elements by the delights
of which we go against the Lord's precepts received by the decalogue. And
as we transgress the decalogue through the lusts of this flesh, it is fitting
that we afflict the flesh forty-fold.
Or, as by the Law we offer the tenth of our goods, so we strive to offer
the tenth of our time. And from the first Sunday of Lent to the rejoicing
of the paschal festival is a space of six weeks, or forty-two days, subtracting
from which the six Sundays which are not kept there remain thirty-six.
Now as the year [p. 120] consists of three hundred and sixty-five, by the
affliction of these thirty-six we give the tenth of our year to God.
Aug., Lib. 83. Quest. q. 81: Otherwise; The sum of all wisdom is to
be acquainted with the Creator and the creature. The Creator is the Trinity,
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; the creature is partly invisible, - as the
soul to which we assign a threefold nature, (as in the command to love
God with the whole heart, mind, and soul,) - partly visible as the body,
which we divide into four elements; the hot, the cold, the liquid, the
solid. The number ten then, which stands for the whole law of life, taken
four times, that is, multiplied by that number which we assign for the
body, because by the body the law is obeyed or disobeyed, makes the number
forty. All the aliquot parts in this number, viz. 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 20,
taken together make up the number 50. Hence the time of our sorrow and
affliction is fixed at forty days; the state of blessed joy which shall
be hereafter is figured in the quinquagesimal festival, i.e. the fifty
days from Easter to Pentecost.
Aug., Serm. 210, 2: Not however because Christ fasted immediately after
having received baptism, are we to suppose that He established a rule to
be observed, that we should fast immediately after His baptism. But when
the conflict with the tempter is sore, then we ought to fast, that the
body may fulfil its warfare by chastisement, and the soul obtain victory
Pseudo-Chrys.: The Lord knew the thoughts of the Devil, that he sought
to tempt Him; he had heard that Christ had been born into this world with
the preaching of Angels, the witness of shepherds, the inquiry of the Magi,
and the testimony of John. Thus the Lord proceeded against him, not as
God, but as man, or rather both as God and man. For in forty days of fasting
not to have been "an hungred" was not as man; to be ever "an hungred" was
not as God. He was "an hungred" then that the God might not be certainly
manifested, and so the hopes of the Devil in tempting Him be extinguished,
and His own victory hindered.
Hilary: He was "an hungred," not during the forty days, but after them.
Therefore when the Lord hungred, it was not that the effects of abstinence
then first came upon Him, but that His humanity was left to its own strength.
For the Devil was to be overcome, not by the God, but by the flesh. By
this [p. 121] was figured, that after those forty days which He was to
tarry on earth after His passion were accomplished, He should hunger for
the salvation of man, at which time He carried back again to God His Father
the expected gift, the humanity which He had taken on Him.
3. And when the Tempter came to Him, he said, "If Thou be the Son
of God, command that these stones be made bread."
4. But He answered and said, "It is written, 'Man shall not live
by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.'
Pseudo-Chrys.: The Devil who had begun to despair when he saw that Christ
fasted forty days, now again began to hope when he saw that "he was an
hungred;" and "then the tempter came to him." If then you shall have fasted
and after been tempted, say not, I have lost the fruit of my fast; for
though it have not availed to hinder temptation, it will avail to hinder
you from being overcome by temptation.
Greg.: If we observe the successive steps of the temptation, we shall
be able to estimate by how much we are freed from temptation. The old enemy
tempted the first man through his belly, when he persuaded him to eat of
the forbidden fruit; through ambition when he said, "Ye shall be as gods;"
through covetousness when he said, "Knowing good and evil;" for there is
a covetousness not only of money, but of greatness, when a high estate
above our measure is sought.
By the same method in which he had overcome the first Adam, in that
same was he overcome when he tempted the second Adam. He tempted through
the belly when he said, "Command that these stones become loaves;" through
ambition when he said, "If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from
hence;" through covetousness of lofty condition in the words, "All these
things will I give thee."
Ambrose, Ambros. in Luc., c. 4. 3: He begins with that which had once
been the means of his victory, the palate; "If thou be the Son of God,
command that these stones become loaves." What means such a beginning as
this, but that he knew that the Son of God was to come, yet believed not
that He was come on account of His fleshly [p. 122] infirmity. His speech
is in part that of an enquirer, in part that of a tempter; he professes
to believe Him God, he strives to deceive Him as man.
Hilary: And therefore in the temptation he makes a proposal of such
a double kind by which His divinity would be made known by the miracle
of the transformation, the weakness of the man deceived by the delight
Jerome: But thou art caught, O Enemy, in a dilemma. If these stones
can be made bread at His word, your temptation is vain against one so mighty.
If He cannot make them bread, your suspicions that this is the Son of God
must be vain.
Pseudo-Chrys.: But as the Devil blinds all men, so is he now invisibly
made blind by Christ. He found Him "an hungred" at the end of forty days,
and knew not that He had continued through those forty without being hungry.
When he suspected Him not to be the Son of God, he considered not that
the mighty Champion can descend to things that be weak, but the weak cannot
ascend to things that are high.
We may more readily infer from His not being "an hungred" for so many
days that He is God, than from His being "an hungred" after that time that
He is man. But it may be said, Moses and Elias fasted forty days, and were
men. But they hungred and endured, He for the space of forty days hungred
not, but afterwards. To be hungry and yet refuse food is within the endurance
of man; not be hungry belongs to the Divine nature only.
Jerome: Christ's purpose was to vanquish by humility;
Leo, Serm. 39, 3: hence he opposed the adversary rather by testimonies
out of the Law, than by miraculous powers; thus at the same time giving
more honour to man, and more disgrace to the adversary, when the enemy
of the human race thus seemed to be overcome by man rather than by God.
Greg.: So the Lord when tempted by the Devil answered only with precepts
of Holy Writ, and He who could have drowned His tempter in the abyss, displayed
not the might of His power; giving us an example, that when we suffer any
thing at the hands of evil men, we should be stirred up to learning rather
than to revenge.
Pseudo-Chrys.: He said not, 'I live not,' but, "Man doth not live by
bread alone," that the Devil might still ask, "If thou be the Son of God."
If He be God, it is as though He shunned [p. 123] to display what He had
power to do; if man, it is a crafty will that His want of power should
not be detected.
Rabanus: This verse is quoted from Deuteronomy. [margin note: c. 8.
3] Whoso then feeds not on the Word of God, he lives not; as the body of
man cannot live without earthly food, so cannot his soul without God's
word. This word is said to proceed out of the mouth of God, where he reveals
His will by Scripture testimonies.
5. Then the Devil taketh Him up into the holy city, and setteth Him
on a pinnacle of the temple,
6. And saith unto Him, "If Thou be the Son of God, cast Thyself
down; for it is written, 'He shall give His Angels charge concerning Thee:'
and in their hands they shall bear Thee up, lest at any time Thou dash
Thy foot against a stone."
7. Jesus said unto Him, "It is written again, 'Thou shalt not tempt
the Lord thy God.' "
Pseudo-Chrys.: From this first answer of Christ, the Devil could learn
nothing certain whether He were God or man; he therefore betook him to
another temptation, saying within himself; This man who is not sensible
of the appetite of hunger, if not the Son of God, is yet a holy man; and
such do attain strength not to be overcome by hunger; but when they have
subdued every necessity of the flesh, they often fall by desire of empty
glory. Therefore he began to tempt Him by this empty glory.
Jerome: "Took him," not because the Lord was weak, but the enemy proud;
he imputed to a necessity what the Saviour did willingly.
Rabanus: Jerusalem was called the Holy City, for in it was the Temple
of God, the Holy of holies, and the worship of the one God according to
the law of Moses.
Remig.: This shews that the Devil lies in wait for Christ's faithful
people even in the sacred places.
Gregory: Behold when it is said that this God was taken by the Devil
into the holy city, pious ears tremble to hear, and yet the Devil is head
and chief among the wicked; what wonder that He suffered Himself to be
led up a mountain by the wicked one himself, who suffered Himself to be
crucified by his members. [p. 124]
Gloss. ord.: The Devil places us on high places by exalting with pride,
that he may dash us to the ground again.
Remig.: The "pinnacle" is the seat of the doctors; for the temple had
not a pointed roof like our houses, but was flat on the top after the manner
of the country of Palestine, and in the temple were three stories. It should
be known that "the pinnacle" was on the floor, and in each story was one
pinnacle. Whether then he placed Him on the pinnacle in the first story,
or that in the second, or the third, he placed Him whence a fall was possible.
Gloss. ord.: Observe here that all these things were done with bodily
sense, and by careful comparison of the context it seems probable that
the Devil appeared in human form.
Pseudo-Chrys.: Perhaps you may say, How could he in the sight of all
place Him bodily upon the temple? Perhaps the Devil so took Him as though
He were visible to all, while He, without the Devil being aware of it,
made Himself invisible.
Gloss, ap. Anselm: He set Him on a pinnacle of the temple when he would
tempt Him through ambition, because in this seat of the doctors he had
before taken many through the same temptation, and therefore thought that
when set in the same seat, He might in like manner be puffed up with vain
Jerome: In the several temptations the single aim of the Devil is to
find if He be the Son of God, but he is so answered as at last to depart
in doubt; He says, "Cast thyself," because the voice of the Devil, which
is always called men downwards, has power to persuade them, but may not
compel them to fall.
Pseudo-Chrys.: How does he expect to discover by this proposition whether
He be the Son of God or not? For to fly through the air is not proper to
the Divine nature, for it is not useful to any. If then any were to attempt
to fly when challenged to it, he would be acting from ostentation, and
would belong rather to the Devil than to God. If it is enough to a wise
man to be what he is, and he has no wish to seem what he is not, how much
more should the Son of God hold it not necessary to shew what He is; He
of whom none can know so much as He is in Himself?
Ambrose: But as Satan transfigures himself into an Angel of light, and
spreads a snare for the faithful, even from the divine Scriptures, so now
he uses its texts, not to instruct [p. 125] but to deceive.
Jerome: This verse we read in the ninetieth Psalm, [Ps 91:11] but that
is a prophecy not of Christ, but of some holy man, so the Devil interprets
Pseudo-Chrys.: For the Son of God in truth is not borne of Angels, but
Himself bears them, or if He be borne in their arms, it is not from weakness,
lest He dash His foot against a stone, but for the honour. O thou Devil,
thou hast read that the Son of God is borne in Angels' arms, hast thou
not also read that He shall tread upon the asp and basilisk? But the one
text he brings forward as proud, the other he omits as crafty.
Chrys.: Observe that Scripture is brought forward by the Lord only with
an apt meaning, but by the Devil irreverently; for that where it is written,
"He shall give his Angels charge over thee," is not an exhortation to cast
Gloss. ap. Anselm: We must explain thus; Scripture says of any good
man, that He has given it in charge to His Angels, that is to His ministering
spirits, to bear him in their hands, i.e. by their aid to guard him that
he dash not his foot against a stone, i.e. keep his heart that it stumble
not at the old law written in tables of stone.
Or by the stone may be understood every occasion of sin and error.
Rabanus: It should be noted, that though our Saviour suffered Himself
to be placed by the Devil on a pinnacle of the temple, yet refused to come
down also at his command, giving us an example, that whosoever bids us
ascend the strait way of truth we should obey. But if he would again cast
us down from the height of truth and virtue to the depth of error we should
not hearken to him.
Jerome: The false Scripture darts of the Devil He brands with the true
shield of Scripture.
Hilary: Thus beating down the efforts of the Devil, He professes Himself
both God and Lord.
Pseudo-Chrys.: Yet He says not, Thou shalt not tempt me thy Lord God;
but, "Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God;" which every man of God when
tempted by the Devil might say; for whoso tempts a man of God, tempts God.
Rabanus: Otherwise, it was a suggestion to Him, as man, that He should
seek by requiring some miracle to know the greatness of God's power.
Aug., contr. Faust., 22, 36: It is a part of sound doctrine, that when
man has any other means, he should not tempt the Lord his God.
Theod. non occ.: And it is to tempt [p. 126] God, in any thing to expose
one's self to danger without cause.
Jerome: It should be noted, that the required texts are taken from the
book of Deuteronomy only, that He might shew the sacraments of the second
8. Again, the Devil taketh Him up into an exceeding high mountain,
and sheweth Him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them;
9. And saith unto Him, "All these things will I give Thee, if Thee
wilt fall down and worship me."
10. Then saith Jesus unto him, "Get thee hence, Satan: for it is
written, 'Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou
11. Then the Devil leaveth Him, and, behold Angels came and ministered
Pseudo-Chrys.: The Devil, left in uncertainty by this second reply,
passes to a third temptation. Christ had broken the nets of appetite, had
passed over those of ambition, he now spreads for Him those of covetousness;
"He taketh him up into a very high mountain," such as in going round about
the earth he had noticed rising above the rest. The higher the mountain,
the wider the view from it.
He shews Him not so as that they truly saw the very kingdoms, cities,
nations, their silver and their gold; but the quarters of the earth where
each kingdom and city lay. As suppose from some high ground I were to point
out to you, see there lies Rome, there Alexandria; you are not supposed
to see the towns themselves, but the quarter in which they lie. Thus the
Devil might point out the several quarters with his finger, and recount
in words the greatness of each kingdom and its condition; for that is said
to be shewn which is in any way presented to the understanding.
Origen, in Luc., Hom. 30: We are not to suppose that when he shewed
him the kingdoms of the world, he presented before Him the kingdom of Persia,
for instance, or India; but he shewed his own kingdom, how he reigns in
the world, that is, how some are governed by fornication, some by avarice.
Remig.: By "their glory," [p. 127] is meant, their gold and silver,
precious stones and temporal goods.
Rabanus: The Devil shews all this to the Lord, not as though he had
power to extend his vision or shew Him any thing unknown. But setting forth
in speech as excellent and pleasant, that vain worldly pomp wherein himself
delighted, he thought by suggestion of it, to create in Christ a love of
Gloss. ord.: He saw not, as we see, with the eye of lust, but as a physician
looks on disease without receiving any hurt.
Jerome: An arrogant and vain vaunt; for he hath not the power to bestow
all kingdoms, since many of the saints have, we know, been make kings of
Pseudo-Chrys.: But such things as are gotten by iniquity in this world,
as riches, for instance, gained by fraud or perjury, these the Devil bestows.
The Devil therefore cannot give riches to whom he will, but to those only
who are willing to receive them of him.
Remig.: Wonderful infatuation in the Devil! To promise earthly kingdoms
to Him who gives heavenly kingdoms to His faithful people, and the glory
of earth to Him who is Lord of the glory of heaven!
Ambrose, in Luc., c. iv, 11: Ambition has its dangers at home; that
it may govern, it is first others' slave; it bows in flattery that it may
rule in honour; and while it would be exalted, it is made to stoop.
Gloss. non occ.: See the Devil's pride as of old. In the beginning he
sought to make himself equal with God, now he seeks to usurp the honours
due to God, saying, "If thou wilt fall down and worship me." Who then worships
the Devil must first fall down.
Pseudo-Chrys.: With these words He puts an end to the temptations of
the Devil, that they should proceed not further.
Jerome: The Devil and Peter are not, as many suppose, condemned to the
same sentence. To Peter it is said, "Get thee behind me, Satan;" i.e. follow
thou behind Me who art contrary to My will. But here it is, "Go, Satan,"
and is not added, 'behind Me,' that we may understand "into the fire prepared
for thee and thy angels."
Remig.: Other copies read, "Get thee behind me;" i.e. remember thee
in what glory thou wast created, and into what misery thou hast fallen.
Pseudo-Chrys.: Observe how Christ when Himself suffered wrong at the
hands of the Devil, being tempted of him, saying, "If thou be the Son of
God, cast [p. 128] thyself down," yet was not moved to chide the Devil.
But now when the Devil usurps the honour of God, he is wroth, and drives
him away, saying, "Go thy way, Satan;" that we may learn by His example
to bear injuries to ourselves with magnanimity, but wrongs to God, to endure
not so much as to hear; for to be patient under our own wrongs is praiseworthy,
to dissemble when God is wronged is impiety.
Jerome: When the Devil says to the Saviour, "If thou wilt fall down
and worship me," he is answered by the contrary declaration, that it more
becomes him to worship Jesus as his Lord and God.
Aug., cont. Serm. Arian, 29: The one Lord our God is the Holy Trinity,
to which alone we justly owe the service of piety.
Aug., City of God, book 10, ch. 1: By service is to be understood the
honour due to God; as our version renders the Greek words, 'latria,' wherever
it occurs in Scripture, by 'service' (servitus), but that service which
is due to men (as where the Apostle bids slaves be subject to their master)
is in Greek called 'dulia;' while 'latria,' always, or so often that we
say always, is used of that worship which belongs to God.
Pseudo-Chrys.: The Devil, we may fairly suppose, did not depart in obedience
to the command, but the Divine nature of Christ, and the Holy Spirit which
was in Him drove him thence, and "then the Devil left him." Which also
serves for our consolation, to see that the Devil does not tempt the men
of God so long as he wills, but so long as Christ suffers. And though He
may suffer him to tempt for a short time, yet in the end He drives him
away because of the weakness of our nature.
Aug., City of God, book 9, ch. 21: After the temptation the Holy Angels,
to be dreaded of all unclean spirits, ministered to the Lord, by which
it was made yet more manifest to the daemons how great was His power.
Pseudo-Chrys.: He says not 'Angels descended from heaven,' that it may
be known that they were ever on the earth to minister to Him, but had now
by the Lord's command departed from Him, to give opportunity for the Devil
to approach, who perhaps when he saw Him surrounded by Angels would not
have come near Him.
But in what matters they ministered to Him, we cannot know, whether
in the healing diseases, or purifying souls, or casting out daemons; for
all these things He does by the ministration of Angels, so that what they
do, Himself [p. 129] appears to do. However it is manifest, that they did
not now minister to Him because His weakness needed it, but for the honour
of His power; for it is not said that they 'succoured Him,' but that they
"ministered to Him."
Gregory, non occ. vid. in Ezek. i. 8. n. 24. in 1 Reg. i. I. n. 1. 2:
In these things is shewn the twofold nature in one person; it is the man
whom the Devil tempts; the same is God to whom Angels minister.
Pseudo-Chrys.: Now let us shortly review what is signified by Christ's
temptations. The fasting is abstinence from things evil, hunger is the
desire of evil, bread is the gratification of the desire. He who indulges
himself in any evil thing, turns stones into bread. Let him answer to the
Devil's persuasions that man does not live by the indulgence of desire
alone, but by keeping the commands of God. When any is puffed up as though
he were holy he is led to the temple, and when he esteems himself to have
reached the summit of holiness he is set on a pinnacle of the temple. And
this temptation follows the first, because victory over temptation begets
But observe that Christ had voluntarily undertaken the fasting; but
was led to the temple by the Devil; therefore do you voluntarily use praiseworthy
abstinence, but suffer yourself not to be exalted to the summit of sanctity;
fly high-mindedness, and you will not suffer a fall.
The ascent of the mountain is the going forward to great riches, and
the glory of this world which springs from pride of heart. When you desire
to become rich, that is, to ascend the mountain, you begin to think of
the ways of gaining wealth and honours, then the prince of this world is
shewing you the glory of his kingdom.
In the third place He provides you reasons, that if you seek to obtain
all these things, you should serve him, and neglect the righteousness of
Hilary: When we have overcome the Devil and bruised his head, we see
that Angels' ministry and the offices of heavenly virtues will not be wanting
Aug., de Cons. Evan., ii, 16: Luke has not given the temptations in
the same order as Matthew; so that we do not know whether the pinnacle
of the temple, or the ascent of the mountain, was first in the action;
but it is of no importance, so long as it is only clear that all of them
were truly done.
Gloss. ap. Anselm: Though Luke's order seems the more historical; Matthew
relates the temptations as they were done to Adam.