21. Nay, in whatsoever. Paul had asked, why the Corinthians
showed more respect to others than to him, while he had not been by any
means weak, that is, contemptible. He now confirms this, because, if a
comparison had been entered upon, he would not have been inferior to any
one in any department of honor.
2 Corinthians 11:22-29
22. Are they Hebrews? so am I. Are they Israelites? so am I. Are
they the seed of Abraham? so am I.
22. Hebraei sunt? Ego quoque. Israelitae sunt? Ego quoque: semen
Abrahae sunt? Ego quoque.
23. Are they ministers of Christ? (I speak as a fool,) I am more:
in labors more abundant, in stripes above measure, in prisons more frequent,
in deaths oft.
23. Ministri Christi sunt? Desipiens loquor, plus ego; in laboribus
abundantius, in plagis supra modum, in carceribus copiosius, in mortibus
24. Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes save one.
24. A Iudaeis quinquies quadraginta plagas accepi una minus.
25. Thrice was I beaten with rods, once was I stoned, thrice I suffered
shipwreck, a night and a day I have been in the deep;
25. Ter virgis caesus sum, semel lapidatus sum, ter naufragium feci,
noctes et dies egi in profundo.
26. In journeyings often, in perils of waters, in perils of robbers,
in perils by mine own countrymen, in perils by the heathen, in perils in
the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils
among false brethren;
26. In itineribus saepe, periculis fluminum, periculis latronum,
periculis ex genere, periculis ex Gentibus, periculis in urbe, periculis
in deserto, periculis in mari, periculis in falsis fratribus:
27. In weariness and painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger
and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness.
27. In labore et molestia, in vigiliis saepe, in fame et siti, in
ieiuniis saepe, in frigore et nuditate:
28. Besides those things that are without, that which cometh upon
me daily, the care of all the Churches.
28. Praeter ea quae extrinsecus accidunt, quotidiana mea moles,
sollicitudo omnium Ecclesiarum.
29. Who is weak, and I am not weak? who is offended, and I burn
29. Quis infirmatur, et ego non infirmor? Quis offenditur, et ego
22. He now, by enumerating particular instances, lets them see more
distinctly, that he would not by any means be found inferior, if matters
came to a contest. And in the first place, he makes mention of the glory
of his descent, of which his rivals chiefly vaunted. “If,” says he, “they
boast of illustrious descent, I shall be on a level with them, for I also
am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham.” This is a silly and empty boast,
and yet Paul makes use of three terms to express it; nay more, he specifies,
as it were, three different marks of excellence. By this repetition, in
my opinion, he indirectly reproves their folly, inasmuch as they placed
the sum-total of their excellence in a thing that was so trivial, and this
boasting was incessantly in their mouth, so as to be absolutely disgusting,
as vain men are accustomed to pour forth empty bravadoes as to a mere nothing.
As to the term Hebrews, it appears from Genesis 11:15, that it denotes
descent, and is derived from Heber; and farther, it is probable, that Abraham
himself is so called in Genesis 14:13, in no other sense than this — that
he was descended from that ancestor. Not altogether without some appearance
of truth is the conjecture of those, who explain the term to mean those
dwelling beyond the river. We do not read, it is true, that any one was
called so before Abraham, who had passed over the river, when he quitted
his native country, and afterwards the appellation came to be a customary
one among his posterity, as appears from the history of Joseph. The termination,
however, shows that it is expressive of descent, and the passage, that
I have quoted, abundantly confirms it.
23. Are they ministers of Christ? Now when he is treating of matters
truly praiseworthy, he is no longer satisfied with being on an equality
with them, but exalts himself above them. For their carnal glories he has
previously been scattering like smoke by a breath of wind, by placing in
opposition to them those which he had of a similar kind; but as they had
nothing of solid worth, he on good grounds separates himself from their
society, when he has occasion to glory in good earnest. For to be a servant
of Christ is a thing that is much more honorable and illustrious, than
to be the first-born among all the first-born of Abraham’s posterity. Again,
however, with the view of providing against calumnies, he premises that
he speaks as a fool. “Imagine this,” says he, “to be foolish boasting:
it is, nevertheless, true.”
In labors. By these things he proves that he is a more eminent servant
of Christ, and then truly we have a proof that may be relied upon, when
deeds instead of words are brought forward. He uses the term labors here
in the plural number, and afterwards labor. What difference there is between
the former and the latter I do not see, unless perhaps it be, that he speaks
here in a more general way, including those things that he afterwards enumerates
in detail. In the same way we may also understand the term deaths to mean
any kind of perils that in a manner threatened present death, instances
of which he afterwards specifies. “I have given proof of myself in deaths
often, in labors oftener still.” He had made use of the term deaths in
the same sense in the first chapter. (2 Corinthians 1:10.)
24. From the Jews. It is certain that the Jews had at that time been
deprived of jurisdiction, but as this was a kind of moderate punishment
(as they termed it) it is probable that it was allowed them. Now the law
of God was to this effect, that those who did not deserve capital punishment
should be beaten in the presence of a judge, (Deuteronomy 25:2, 3,) provided
not more than forty stripes were inflicted, lest the body should be disfigured
or mutilated by cruelty. Now it is probable, that in process of time it
became customary to step at the thirty-ninth lash, lest perhaps they should
on any occasion, from undue warmth, exceed the number prescribed by God.
Many such precautions, prescribed by the Rabbins, are to be found among
the Jews, which make some restriction upon the permission that the Lord
had given. Hence, perhaps, in process of time, (as things generally deteriorate,)
they came to think, that all criminals should be beaten with stripes to
that number, though the Lord did not prescribe, how far severity should
go, but. where it was to stop; unless perhaps you prefer to receive what
is stated by others, that they exercised greater cruelty upon Paul. This
is not at all improbable, for if they had been accustomed ordinarily to
practice this severity upon all, he might have said that he was beaten
according to custom. Hence the statement of the number is expressive of
25. Thrice was I beaten with rods. Hence it appears, that the Apostle
suffered many things, of which no mention is made by Luke; for he makes
mention of only one stoning, one scourging, and one shipwreck. We have
not, however, a complete narrative, nor is there mention made in it of
every particular that occurred, but only of the principal things.
By perils from the nation he means those that befell him from his own
nation, in consequence of the hatred, that was kindled against him among
all the Jews. On the other hand, he had the Gentiles as his adversaries;
and in the third place snares were laid for him by false brethren. Thus
it happened, that
for Christ’s name’s sake he was hated by all.
By fastings I understand those that are voluntary, as he has spoken
previously of hunger and want. Such were the tokens by which he showed
himself, and on good grounds, to be an eminent servant of Christ. For how
may we better distinguish Christ’s servants than by proofs so numerous,
so various, and so important? On the other hand, while those effeminate
boasters had done nothing for Christ, and had suffered nothing for him,
they, nevertheless, impudently vaunted.
It is asked, however, whether any one can be a servant of Christ, that
has not. been tried with so many evils, perils, and vexations? I answer,
that all these things are not indispensably requisite on the part of all;
but where these things are seen, there is, undoubtedly, a greater and more
illustrious testimony afforded. That man, therefore, who will be signalized
by so many marks of distinction, will not despise those that are less illustrious,
and less thoroughly tried, nor will he on that account be elated with pride;
but still, whenever there is occasion for it, he will be prepared, after
Paul’s example, to exult with a holy triumph, in opposition to pretenders
and worthless persons, provided he has an eye to Christ, not to himself
— for nothing but pride or ambition could corrupt and tarnish all these
praises. For the main thing is — that we serve Christ with a pure conscience.
All other things are, as it were, additional.
28. Besides those things that are without. “Besides those things,” says
he, “which come upon me from all sides, and are as it were extraordinary,
what estimate must be formed of that ordinary burden that constantly presses
upon me — the care that I have of all the Churches.” The care of all the
Churches he appropriately calls his ordinary burden. For I have taken the
liberty of rendering ejpisu>stasin in this way, as it sometimes means —
whatever presses upon us.
Whoever is concerned in good earnest as to the Church of God, stirs
up himself and bears a heavy burden, which presses upon his shoulders.
What a picture we have here of a complete minister, embracing in his anxieties
and aims not one Church merely, or ten, or thirty, but all of them together,
so that he instructs some, confirms others, exhorts others, gives counsel
to some, and applies a remedy to the diseases Of others! Now from Paul’s
words we may infer, that no one can have a heartfelt concern for the Churches,
without being harassed with many difficulties; for the government of the
Church is no pleasant occupation, in which we may exercise ourselves agreeably
and with delight of heart, but a hard and severe warfare, as has been previously
mentioned, (2 Corinthians 10: 4,) — Satan from time to time giving us as
much trouble as he can, and leaving no stone unturned to annoy us.
29. Who is weak. How many there are that allow all offenses to pass
by unheeded — who either despise the infirmities of brethren, or trample
them under foot! This, however, arises from their having no concern for
the Church. For concern, undoubtedly, produces sumpa>qeian (sympathy,)
which leads the Minister of Christ to participate in the feelings of all,
and put himself in the place of all, that he may suit himself to all.
2 Corinthians 11:30-31
30. If I must needs glory, I will glory of the things which concern
30. Si gloriari oportet, in iis quae infirmitatis meae sunt gloriabor.
31. The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is blessed
for evermore, knoweth that I lie not.
31. Deus et Pater Domini nostri Iesu Christi novit, qui est benedictus
in saecula, quod non mentiar.
30. If he must glory. Here we have the conclusion, drawn from all that
has gone before — that Paul is more inclined to boast of those things that
are connected with his infirmity, that is, those things which might, in
the view of the world, bring him contempt, rather than glory, as, for example,
hunger, thirst, imprisonments, stonings, stripes, and the like — those
things, in truth, that we are usually as much ashamed of, as of things
that incur great dishonor.
31. The God and Father. As he was about to relate a singular feat, which,
at the same time, was not well known, he confirms it by making use of an
oath. Observe, however, what is the form of a pious oath, — when, for the
purpose of declaring the truth, we reverently call God as our witness.
Now this persecution was, as it were, Paul’s first apprenticeship, as appears
from Luke, (Acts 9:23-25); but if, while yet a raw recruit, he was exercised
in such beginnings, what shall we think of him, when a veteran soldier?
As, however, flight gives no evidence of a valiant spirit, it may be asked,
why it is that he makes mention of his flight? I answer, that the gates
of the royal city having been closed, clearly showed with what rage the
wicked were inflamed against him; and it was on no light grounds that they
had been led to entertain such a feeling, for if Paul had not fought for
Christ with a new and unusual activity, the wicked would never have been
thrown into such a commotion. His singular perseverance, however, shone
forth chiefly in this — that, after escaping from so severe a: persecution,
he did not cease to stir up the whole world against him, by prosecuting
fearlessly the Lord’s work.
It may be, however, that he proceeds to mock those ambitious men, who,
while they had never had experience of any thing but applauses, favors,
honorable salutations, and agreeable lodgings, wished to be held in the
highest esteem. For, in opposition to this, he relates, that he was shut
in, so that he could with difficulty save his life by a miserable and ignominious
Some, however, ask, whether it was lawful for Paul to leap over the
walls, inasmuch as it was a capital crime to do so? I answer, in the first
place, that it is not certain, whether that punishment was sanctioned by
law in the East; and farther, that even if it was so, Paul, nevertheless,
was guilty’ of no crime, because he did not do this as an enemy, or for
sport, but from necessity. For the law would not punish a man, that would
throw himself down from the walls to save his life from the flames; and
what difference is there between a fire, and a fierce attack from robbers?
We must always, in connection with laws, have an eye to reason and equity.
This consideration will exempt Paul entirely from blame.